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<!DOCTYPE HTML PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD HTML 4.01//EN"
                      "http://www.w3.org/TR/html4/strict.dtd">
<html>
<head>
  <title>LLVM's Analysis and Transform Passes</title>
  <link rel="stylesheet" href="llvm.css" type="text/css">
</head>
<body>

<div class="doc_title">LLVM's Analysis and Transform Passes</div>

<ol>
  <li><a href="#intro">Introduction</a></li>
  <li><a href="#analyses">Analysis Passes</a>
  <li><a href="#transforms">Transform Passes</a></li>
  <li><a href="#utilities">Utility Passes</a></li>
</ol>

<div class="doc_author">
  <p>Written by <a href="mailto:rspencer@x10sys.com">Reid Spencer</a></p>
</div>

<!-- ======================================================================= -->
<div class="doc_section"> <a name="intro">Introduction</a> </div>
<div class="doc_text">
  <p>This document serves as a high level summary of the optimization features 
  that LLVM provides. Optimizations are implemented as Passes that traverse some
  portion of a program to either collect information or transform the program.
  THe table below divides the passes that LLVM provides into three categories.
  Analysis passes compute information that other passes can use or for debugging
  or program visualization purposes. Transform passes can use (or invalidate)
  the analysis passes. Transform passes all mutate the program in some way. 
  Utility passes provides ome utility but don't otherwise fit categorization.
  For example passes to extract functions to bitcode or write a module to
  bitcode are neither analysis nor transform passes.
  <p>The table below provides a quick summary of each pass and links to the more
  complete pass description later in the document.</p>
</div>
<div class="doc_text" >
<table>
<tr><th colspan="3"><b>ANALYSIS PASSES</b></th></tr>
<tr><th>Option</th><th>Name</th><th>Directory</th></tr>
<tr><td><a href="#aa-eval">-aa-eval</a></td><td>Exhaustive Alias Analysis Precision Evaluator</td></tr>
<tr><td><a href="#anders-aa">-anders-aa</a></td><td>Andersen's Interprocedural Alias Analysis</td></tr>
<tr><td><a href="#basicaa">-basicaa</a></td><td>Basic Alias Analysis (default AA impl)</td></tr>
<tr><td><a href="#basiccg">-basiccg</a></td><td>Basic CallGraph Construction</td></tr>
<tr><td><a href="#basicvn">-basicvn</a></td><td>Basic Value Numbering (default GVN impl)</td></tr>
<tr><td><a href="#callgraph">-callgraph</a></td><td>Print a call graph</td></tr>
<tr><td><a href="#callscc">-callscc</a></td><td>Print SCCs of the Call Graph</td></tr>
<tr><td><a href="#cfgscc">-cfgscc</a></td><td>Print SCCs of each function CFG</td></tr>
<tr><td><a href="#count-aa">-count-aa</a></td><td>Count Alias Analysis Query Responses</td></tr>
<tr><td><a href="#debug-aa">-debug-aa</a></td><td>AA use debugger</td></tr>
<tr><td><a href="#domfrontier">-domfrontier</a></td><td>Dominance Frontier Construction</td></tr>
<tr><td><a href="#domset">-domset</a></td><td>Dominator Set Construction</td></tr>
<tr><td><a href="#domtree">-domtree</a></td><td>Dominator Tree Construction</td></tr>
<tr><td><a href="#etforest">-etforest</a></td><td>ET Forest Construction</td></tr>
<tr><td><a href="#externalfnconstants">-externalfnconstants</a></td><td>Print external fn callsites passed constants</td></tr>
<tr><td><a href="#globalsmodref-aa">-globalsmodref-aa</a></td><td>Simple mod/ref analysis for globals</td></tr>
<tr><td><a href="#idom">-idom</a></td><td>Immediate Dominators Construction</td></tr>
<tr><td><a href="#instcount">-instcount</a></td><td>Counts the various types of Instructions</td></tr>
<tr><td><a href="#intervals">-intervals</a></td><td>Interval Partition Construction</td></tr>
<tr><td><a href="#load-vn">-load-vn</a></td><td>Load Value Numbering</td></tr>
<tr><td><a href="#loops">-loops</a></td><td>Natural Loop Construction</td></tr>
<tr><td><a href="#no-aa">-no-aa</a></td><td>No Alias Analysis (always returns 'may' alias)</td></tr>
<tr><td><a href="#no-profile">-no-profile</a></td><td>No Profile Information</td></tr>
<tr><td><a href="#postdomfrontier">-postdomfrontier</a></td><td>Post-Dominance Frontier Construction</td></tr>
<tr><td><a href="#postdomset">-postdomset</a></td><td>Post-Dominator Set Construction</td></tr>
<tr><td><a href="#postdomtree">-postdomtree</a></td><td>Post-Dominator Tree Construction</td></tr>
<tr><td><a href="#postetforest">-postetforest</a></td><td>Post-ET-Forest Construction</td></tr>
<tr><td><a href="#postidom">-postidom</a></td><td>Immediate Post-Dominators Construction</td></tr>
<tr><td><a href="#print">-print</a></td><td>Print function to stderr</td></tr>
<tr><td><a href="#print-alias-sets">-print-alias-sets</a></td><td>Alias Set Printer</td></tr>
<tr><td><a href="#print-callgraph">-print-callgraph</a></td><td>Print Call Graph to 'dot' file</td></tr>
<tr><td><a href="#print-cfg">-print-cfg</a></td><td>Print CFG of function to 'dot' file</td></tr>
<tr><td><a href="#print-cfg-only">-print-cfg-only</a></td><td>Print CFG of function to 'dot' file (with no function bodies)</td></tr>
<tr><td><a href="#printm">-printm</a></td><td>Print module to stderr</td></tr>
<tr><td><a href="#printusedtypes">-printusedtypes</a></td><td>Find Used Types</td></tr>
<tr><td><a href="#profile-loader">-profile-loader</a></td><td>Load profile information from llvmprof.out</td></tr>
<tr><td><a href="#scalar-evolution">-scalar-evolution</a></td><td>Scalar Evolution Analysis</td></tr>
<tr><td><a href="#targetdata">-targetdata</a></td><td>Target Data Layout</td></tr>


<tr><th colspan="3"><b>TRANSFORM PASSES</b></th></tr>
<tr><th>Option</th><th>Name</th><th>Directory</th></tr>
<tr><td><a href="#adce">-adce</a></td><td>Aggressive Dead Code Elimination</td></tr>
<tr><td><a href="#argpromotion">-argpromotion</a></td><td>Promote 'by reference' arguments to scalars</td></tr>
<tr><td><a href="#block-placement">-block-placement</a></td><td>Profile Guided Basic Block Placement</td></tr>
<tr><td><a href="#break-crit-edges">-break-crit-edges</a></td><td>Break Critical Edges in CFG</td></tr>
<tr><td><a href="#cee">-cee</a></td><td>Correlated Expression Elimination</td></tr>
<tr><td><a href="#condprop">-condprop</a></td><td>Conditional Propagation</td></tr>
<tr><td><a href="#constmerge">-constmerge</a></td><td>Merge Duplicate Global Constants</td></tr>
<tr><td><a href="#constprop">-constprop</a></td><td>Simple constant propagation</td></tr>
<tr><td><a href="#dce">-dce</a></td><td>Dead Code Elimination</td></tr>
<tr><td><a href="#deadargelim">-deadargelim</a></td><td>Dead Argument Elimination</td></tr>
<tr><td><a href="#deadtypeelim">-deadtypeelim</a></td><td>Dead Type Elimination</td></tr>
<tr><td><a href="#die">-die</a></td><td>Dead Instruction Elimination</td></tr>
<tr><td><a href="#dse">-dse</a></td><td>Dead Store Elimination</td></tr>
<tr><td><a href="#gcse">-gcse</a></td><td>Global Common Subexpression Elimination</td></tr>
<tr><td><a href="#globaldce">-globaldce</a></td><td>Dead Global Elimination</td></tr>
<tr><td><a href="#globalopt">-globalopt</a></td><td>Global Variable Optimizer</td></tr>
<tr><td><a href="#indmemrem">-indmemrem</a></td><td>Indirect Malloc and Free Removal</td></tr>
<tr><td><a href="#indvars">-indvars</a></td><td>Canonicalize Induction Variables</td></tr>
<tr><td><a href="#inline">-inline</a></td><td>Function Integration/Inlining</td></tr>
<tr><td><a href="#insert-block-profiling">-insert-block-profiling</a></td><td>Insert instrumentation for block profiling</td></tr>
<tr><td><a href="#insert-edge-profiling">-insert-edge-profiling</a></td><td>Insert instrumentation for edge profiling</td></tr>
<tr><td><a href="#insert-function-profiling">-insert-function-profiling</a></td><td>Insert instrumentation for function profiling</td></tr>
<tr><td><a href="#insert-null-profiling-rs">-insert-null-profiling-rs</a></td><td>Measure profiling framework overhead</td></tr>
<tr><td><a href="#insert-rs-profiling-framework">-insert-rs-profiling-framework</a></td><td>Insert random sampling instrumentation framework</td></tr>
<tr><td><a href="#instcombine">-instcombine</a></td><td>Combine redundant instructions</td></tr>
<tr><td><a href="#internalize">-internalize</a></td><td>Internalize Global Symbols</td></tr>
<tr><td><a href="#ipconstprop">-ipconstprop</a></td><td>Interprocedural constant propagation</td></tr>
<tr><td><a href="#ipsccp">-ipsccp</a></td><td>Interprocedural Sparse Conditional Constant Propagation</td></tr>
<tr><td><a href="#lcssa">-lcssa</a></td><td>Loop-Closed SSA Form Pass</td></tr>
<tr><td><a href="#licm">-licm</a></td><td>Loop Invariant Code Motion</td></tr>
<tr><td><a href="#loop-extract">-loop-extract</a></td><td>Extract loops into new functions</td></tr>
<tr><td><a href="#loop-extract-single">-loop-extract-single</a></td><td>Extract at most one loop into a new function</td></tr>
<tr><td><a href="#loop-reduce">-loop-reduce</a></td><td>Loop Strength Reduction</td></tr>
<tr><td><a href="#loop-unroll">-loop-unroll</a></td><td>Unroll Loops</td></tr>
<tr><td><a href="#loop-unswitch">-loop-unswitch</a></td><td>Unswitch Loops</td></tr>
<tr><td><a href="#loopsimplify">-loopsimplify</a></td><td>Canonicalize Natural Loops</td></tr>
<tr><td><a href="#lower-packed">-lower-packed</a></td><td>Lower Packed Operations</td></tr>
<tr><td><a href="#lowerallocs">-lowerallocs</a></td><td>Lower allocations from instructions to calls</td></tr>
<tr><td><a href="#lowergc">-lowergc</a></td><td>Lower GC intrinsics, for GCless code generators</td></tr>
<tr><td><a href="#lowerinvoke">-lowerinvoke</a></td><td>Lower Invoke and Unwind</td></tr>
<tr><td><a href="#lowerselect">-lowerselect</a></td><td>Lower Selects To Branches</td></tr>
<tr><td><a href="#lowersetjmp">-lowersetjmp</a></td><td>Lower Set Jump</td></tr>
<tr><td><a href="#lowerswitch">-lowerswitch</a></td><td>Lower SwitchInst's to branches</td></tr>
<tr><td><a href="#mem2reg">-mem2reg</a></td><td>Promote Memory to Register</td></tr>
<tr><td><a href="#mergereturn">-mergereturn</a></td><td>Unify Function Exit Nodes</td></tr>
<tr><td><a href="#predsimplify">-predsimplify</a></td><td>Predicate Simplifier</td></tr>
<tr><td><a href="#prune-eh">-prune-eh</a></td><td>Remove unused exception handling info</td></tr>
<tr><td><a href="#raiseallocs">-raiseallocs</a></td><td>Raise allocations from calls to instructions</td></tr>
<tr><td><a href="#reassociate">-reassociate</a></td><td>Reassociate Expressions</td></tr>
<tr><td><a href="#reg2mem">-reg2mem</a></td><td>Demote Values to Memory</td></tr>
<tr><td><a href="#scalarrepl">-scalarrepl</a></td><td>Scalar Replacement of Aggregates</td></tr>
<tr><td><a href="#sccp">-sccp</a></td><td>Sparse Conditional Constant Propagation</td></tr>
<tr><td><a href="#simplify-libcalls">-simplify-libcalls</a></td><td>Simplify well-known library calls</td></tr>
<tr><td><a href="#simplifycfg">-simplifycfg</a></td><td>Simplify the CFG</td></tr>
<tr><td><a href="#strip">-strip</a></td><td>Strip all symbols from a module</td></tr>
<tr><td><a href="#tailcallelim">-tailcallelim</a></td><td>Tail Call Elimination</td></tr>
<tr><td><a href="#tailduplicate">-tailduplicate</a></td><td>Tail Duplication</td></tr>
<tr><th colspan="3"><b>UTILITY PASSES</b></th></tr>
<tr><th>Option</th><th>Name</th><th>Directory</th></tr>
<tr><td><a href="#deadarghaX0r">-deadarghaX0r</a></td><td>Dead Argument Hacking (BUGPOINT ONLY)</td></tr>
<tr><td><a href="#extract-blocks">-extract-blocks</a></td><td>Extract Basic Blocks From Module (BUGPOINT ONLY)</td></tr>
<tr><td><a href="#emitbitcode">-emitbitcode</a></td><td>Bitcode Writer</td></tr>
<tr><td><a href="#verify">-verify</a></td><td>Module Verifier</td></tr>
</table>
</div>

<!-- ======================================================================= -->
<div class="doc_section"> <a name="example">Analysis Passes</a></div>
<div class="doc_text">
  <p>This section describes the LLVM Analysis Passes.</p>
</div>

<!-------------------------------------------------------------------------- -->
<div class="doc_subsection">
  <a name="aa-eval">Exhaustive Alias Analysis Precision Evaluator</a>
</div>
<div class="doc_text">
  <p>Yet to be written.</p>
</div>

<!-------------------------------------------------------------------------- -->
<div class="doc_subsection">
  <a name="anders-aa">Andersen's Interprocedural Alias Analysis</a>
</div>
<div class="doc_text">
  <p>Yet to be written.</p>
</div>

<!-------------------------------------------------------------------------- -->
<div class="doc_subsection">
  <a name="basicaa">Basic Alias Analysis</a>
</div>
<div class="doc_text">
  <p>Yet to be written.</p>
</div>

<!-------------------------------------------------------------------------- -->
<div class="doc_subsection">
  <a name="basiccg">Basic Call Graph Construction</a>
</div>
<div class="doc_text">
  <p>Yet to be written.</p>
</div>

<!-------------------------------------------------------------------------- -->
<div class="doc_subsection">
  <a name="basicvn">Basic Value Numbering</a>
</div>
<div class="doc_text">
  <p>Yet to be written.</p>
</div>

<!-------------------------------------------------------------------------- -->
<div class="doc_subsection">
  <a name="callgraph">Print Call Graph</a>
</div>
<div class="doc_text">
  <p>Yet to be written.</p>
</div>

<!-------------------------------------------------------------------------- -->
<div class="doc_subsection">
  <a name="callscc">Print SCCs of the Call Graph</a>
</div>
<div class="doc_text">
  <p>Yet to be written.</p>
</div>

<!-------------------------------------------------------------------------- -->
<div class="doc_subsection">
  <a name="cfgscc">Print SCCs of each Function Control Flow Graph</a>
</div>
<div class="doc_text">
  <p>Yet to be written.</p>
</div>

<!-------------------------------------------------------------------------- -->
<div class="doc_subsection">
  <a name="count-aa">Count Alias Analysis Query Responses</a>
</div>
<div class="doc_text">
  <p>Yet to be written.</p>
</div>

<!-------------------------------------------------------------------------- -->
<div class="doc_subsection">
  <a name="debug-aa">Alias Analysis Usage Debugger</a>
</div>
<div class="doc_text">
  <p>Yet to be written.</p>
</div>

<!-------------------------------------------------------------------------- -->
<div class="doc_subsection">
  <a name="domfrontier">Dominance Frontier Construction</a>
</div>
<div class="doc_text">
  <p>Yet to be written.</p>
</div>

<!-------------------------------------------------------------------------- -->
<div class="doc_subsection">
  <a name="domset">Dominator Set Construction</a>
</div>
<div class="doc_text">
  <p>Yet to be written.</p>
</div>

<!-------------------------------------------------------------------------- -->
<div class="doc_subsection">
  <a name="domtree">Dominator Tree Construction</a>
</div>
<div class="doc_text">
  <p>Yet to be written.</p>
</div>

<!-------------------------------------------------------------------------- -->
<div class="doc_subsection">
  <a name="etforest">ET Forest Construction</a>
</div>
<div class="doc_text">
  <p>Yet to be written.</p>
</div>

<!-------------------------------------------------------------------------- -->
<div class="doc_subsection">
  <a name="basicvn">Basic Value Numbering</a>
</div>
<div class="doc_text">
  <p>Yet to be written.</p>
</div>

<!-------------------------------------------------------------------------- -->
<div class="doc_subsection">
  <a name="externalfnconstants">Print external fn callsites passed constants</a>
</div>
<div class="doc_text">
  <p>Yet to be written.</p>
</div>

<!-------------------------------------------------------------------------- -->
<div class="doc_subsection">
  <a name="globalsmodref-aa">Simple mod/ref analysis for globals</a>
</div>
<div class="doc_text">
  <p>Yet to be written.</p>
</div>

<!-------------------------------------------------------------------------- -->
<div class="doc_subsection">
  <a name="idom">Immediate Dominators Construction</a>
</div>
<div class="doc_text">
  <p>Yet to be written.</p>
</div>

<!-------------------------------------------------------------------------- -->
<div class="doc_subsection">
  <a name="instcount">Counts the various types of Instructions</a>
</div>
<div class="doc_text">
  <p>Yet to be written.</p>
</div>

<!-------------------------------------------------------------------------- -->
<div class="doc_subsection">
  <a name="intervals">Interval Partition Construction</a>
</div>
<div class="doc_text">
  <p>Yet to be written.</p>
</div>

<!-------------------------------------------------------------------------- -->
<div class="doc_subsection">
  <a name="load-vn">Load Value Numbering</a>
</div>
<div class="doc_text">
  <p>Yet to be written.</p>
</div>

<!-------------------------------------------------------------------------- -->
<div class="doc_subsection">
  <a name="loops">Natural Loop Construction</a>
</div>
<div class="doc_text">
  <p>Yet to be written.</p>
</div>

<!-------------------------------------------------------------------------- -->
<div class="doc_subsection">
  <a name="no-aa">No Alias Analysis (always returns 'may' alias)</a>
</div>
<div class="doc_text">
  <p>Yet to be written.</p>
</div>

<!-------------------------------------------------------------------------- -->
<div class="doc_subsection">
  <a name="no-profile">No Profile Information</a>
</div>
<div class="doc_text">
  <p>Yet to be written.</p>
</div>

<!-------------------------------------------------------------------------- -->
<div class="doc_subsection">
  <a name="postdomfrontier">Post-Dominance Frontier Construction</a>
</div>
<div class="doc_text">
  <p>Yet to be written.</p>
</div>

<!-------------------------------------------------------------------------- -->
<div class="doc_subsection">
  <a name="postdomset">Post-Dominator Set Construction</a>
</div>
<div class="doc_text">
  <p>Yet to be written.</p>
</div>

<!-------------------------------------------------------------------------- -->
<div class="doc_subsection">
  <a name="postdomtree">Post-Dominator Tree Construction</a>
</div>
<div class="doc_text">
  <p>Yet to be written.</p>
</div>

<!-------------------------------------------------------------------------- -->
<div class="doc_subsection">
  <a name="postetforest">Post-ET-Forest Construction</a>
</div>
<div class="doc_text">
  <p>Yet to be written.</p>
</div>

<!-------------------------------------------------------------------------- -->
<div class="doc_subsection">
  <a name="postidom">Immediate Post-Dominators Construction</a>
</div>
<div class="doc_text">
  <p>Yet to be written.</p>
</div>

<!-------------------------------------------------------------------------- -->
<div class="doc_subsection">
  <a name="print">Print function to stderr</a>
</div>
<div class="doc_text">
  <p>Yet to be written.</p>
</div>

<!-------------------------------------------------------------------------- -->
<div class="doc_subsection">
  <a name="print-alias-sets">Alias Set Printer</a>
</div>
<div class="doc_text">
  <p>Yet to be written.</p>
</div>

<!-------------------------------------------------------------------------- -->
<div class="doc_subsection">
  <a name="print-callgraph">Print Call Graph to 'dot' file</a>
</div>
<div class="doc_text">
  <p>Yet to be written.</p>
</div>

<!-------------------------------------------------------------------------- -->
<div class="doc_subsection">
  <a name="print-cfg">Print CFG of function to 'dot' file</a>
</div>
<div class="doc_text">
  <p>Yet to be written.</p>
</div>

<!-------------------------------------------------------------------------- -->
<div class="doc_subsection">
  <a name="print-cfg-only">Print CFG of function to 'dot' file (with no function bodies)</a>
</div>
<div class="doc_text">
  <p>Yet to be written.</p>
</div>

<!-------------------------------------------------------------------------- -->
<div class="doc_subsection">
  <a name="printm">Print module to stderr</a>
</div>
<div class="doc_text">
  <p>Yet to be written.</p>
</div>

<!-------------------------------------------------------------------------- -->
<div class="doc_subsection">
  <a name="printusedtypes">Find Used Types</a>
</div>
<div class="doc_text">
  <p>Yet to be written.</p>
</div>

<!-------------------------------------------------------------------------- -->
<div class="doc_subsection">
  <a name="profile-loader">Load profile information from llvmprof.out</a>
</div>
<div class="doc_text">
  <p>Yet to be written.</p>
</div>

<!-------------------------------------------------------------------------- -->
<div class="doc_subsection">
  <a name="scalar-evolution">Scalar Evolution Analysis</a>
</div>
<div class="doc_text">
  <p>Yet to be written.</p>
</div>

<!-------------------------------------------------------------------------- -->
<div class="doc_subsection">
  <a name="targetdata">Target Data Layout</a>
</div>
<div class="doc_text">
  <p>Yet to be written.</p>
</div>

<!-- ======================================================================= -->
<div class="doc_section"> <a name="transform">Transform Passes</a></div>
<div class="doc_text">
  <p>This section describes the LLVM Transform Passes.</p>
</div>

<!-------------------------------------------------------------------------- -->
<div class="doc_subsection">
  <a name="adce">Aggressive Dead Code Elimination</a>
</div>
<div class="doc_text">
  <p>ADCE aggressively tries to eliminate code. This pass is similar to
  <a href="#dce">DCE</a> but it assumes that values are dead until proven 
  otherwise. This is similar to <a href="#sccp">SCCP</a>, except applied to 
  the liveness of values.</p>
</div>

<!-------------------------------------------------------------------------- -->
<div class="doc_subsection">
  <a name="argpromotion">Promote 'by reference' arguments to scalars</a>
</div>
<div class="doc_text">
  <p>Yet to be written.</p>
</div>

<!-------------------------------------------------------------------------- -->
<div class="doc_subsection">
  <a name="block-placement">Profile Guided Basic Block Placement</a>
</div>
<div class="doc_text">
  <p>This pass implements a very simple profile guided basic block placement
  algorithm.  The idea is to put frequently executed blocks together at the
  start of the function, and hopefully increase the number of fall-through
  conditional branches.  If there is no profile information for a particular
  function, this pass basically orders blocks in depth-first order.</p>
  <p>The algorithm implemented here is basically "Algo1" from "Profile Guided 
  Code Positioning" by Pettis and Hansen, except that it uses basic block 
  counts instead of edge counts.  This could be improved in many ways, but is 
  very simple for now.</p>
  <p>Basically we "place" the entry block, then loop over all successors in a 
  DFO, placing the most frequently executed successor until we run out of 
  blocks.  Did we mention that this was <b>extremely</b> simplistic? This is 
  also much slower than it could be.  When it becomes important, this pass 
  will be rewritten to use a better algorithm, and then we can worry about 
  efficiency.</p>
</div>

<!-------------------------------------------------------------------------- -->
<div class="doc_subsection">
  <a name="break-crit-edges">Break Critical Edges in CFG</a>
</div>
<div class="doc_text">
  <p>Yet to be written.</p>
</div>

<!-------------------------------------------------------------------------- -->
<div class="doc_subsection">
  <a name="cee">Correlated Expression Elimination</a>
</div>
<div class="doc_text">
  <p>Correlated Expression Elimination propagates information from conditional
  branches to blocks dominated by destinations of the branch.  It propagates
  information from the condition check itself into the body of the branch,
  allowing transformations like these for example:
  <pre>
    if (i == 7)
      ... 4*i;  // constant propagation

    M = i+1; N = j+1;
    if (i == j)
      X = M-N;  // = M-M == 0;
   </pre></p>

   <p>This is called Correlated Expression Elimination because we eliminate or
   simplify expressions that are correlated with the direction of a branch. In
   this way we use static information to give us some information about the
   dynamic value of a variable.</p>
</div>

<!-------------------------------------------------------------------------- -->
<div class="doc_subsection">
  <a name="condprop">Conditional Propagation</a>
</div>
<div class="doc_text">
  <p>This pass propagates information about conditional expressions through the
  program, allowing it to eliminate conditional branches in some cases.</p>
</div>

<!-------------------------------------------------------------------------- -->
<div class="doc_subsection">
  <a name="constmerge">Merge Duplicate Global Constants</a>
</div>
<div class="doc_text">
  <p>Yet to be written.</p>
</div>

<!-------------------------------------------------------------------------- -->
<div class="doc_subsection">
  <a name="constprop">Constant Propagation</a>
</div>
<div class="doc_text">
  <p>This file implements constant propagation and merging. It looks for
  instructions involving only constant operands and replaces them with a
  constant value instead of an instruction. For example:
  <pre>add i32 1, 2</pre><br/>
  becomes
  <pre>i32 3</pre></p>
  <p>NOTE: this pass has a habit of making definitions be dead.  It is a good 
  idea to to run a <a href="#die">DIE</a> (Dead Instruction Elimination) pass 
  sometime after running this pass.</p>
</div>

<!-------------------------------------------------------------------------- -->
<div class="doc_subsection">
  <a name="dce">Dead Code Elimination</a>
</div>
<div class="doc_text">
  <p>Yet to be written.</p>
</div>

<!-------------------------------------------------------------------------- -->
<div class="doc_subsection">
  <a name="deadargelim">Dead Argument Elimination</a>
</div>
<div class="doc_text">
  <p>Yet to be written.</p>
</div>

<!-------------------------------------------------------------------------- -->
<div class="doc_subsection">
  <a name="deadtypeelim">Dead Type Elimination</a>
</div>
<div class="doc_text">
  <p>Yet to be written.</p>
</div>

<!-------------------------------------------------------------------------- -->
<div class="doc_subsection">
  <a name="die">Dead Instruction Elimination</a>
</div>
<div class="doc_text">
  <p>Yet to be written.</p>
</div>

<!-------------------------------------------------------------------------- -->
<div class="doc_subsection">
  <a name="dse">Dead Store Elimination</a>
</div>
<div class="doc_text">
  <p>Yet to be written.</p>
</div>

<!-------------------------------------------------------------------------- -->
<div class="doc_subsection">
  <a name="gcse">Global Common Subexpression Elimination</a>
</div>
<div class="doc_text">
  <p>Yet to be written.</p>
</div>

<!-------------------------------------------------------------------------- -->
<div class="doc_subsection">
  <a name="globaldce">Dead Global Elimination</a>
</div>
<div class="doc_text">
  <p>Yet to be written.</p>
</div>

<!-------------------------------------------------------------------------- -->
<div class="doc_subsection">
  <a name="globalopt">Global Variable Optimizer</a>
</div>
<div class="doc_text">
  <p>Yet to be written.</p>
</div>

<!-------------------------------------------------------------------------- -->
<div class="doc_subsection">
  <a name="indmemrem">Indirect Malloc and Free Removal</a>
</div>
<div class="doc_text">
  <p>Yet to be written.</p>
</div>

<!-------------------------------------------------------------------------- -->
<div class="doc_subsection">
  <a name="indvars">Canonicalize Induction Variables</a>
</div>
<div class="doc_text">
  <p>Yet to be written.</p>
</div>

<!-------------------------------------------------------------------------- -->
<div class="doc_subsection">
  <a name="inline">Function Integration/Inlining</a>
</div>
<div class="doc_text">
  <p>Yet to be written.</p>
</div>

<!-------------------------------------------------------------------------- -->
<div class="doc_subsection">
  <a name="insert-block-profiling">Insert instrumentation for block profiling</a>
</div>
<div class="doc_text">
  <p>Yet to be written.</p>
</div>

<!-------------------------------------------------------------------------- -->
<div class="doc_subsection">
  <a name="insert-edge-profiling">Insert instrumentation for edge profiling</a>
</div>
<div class="doc_text">
  <p>Yet to be written.</p>
</div>

<!-------------------------------------------------------------------------- -->
<div class="doc_subsection">
  <a name="insert-function-profiling">Insert instrumentation for function profiling</a>
</div>
<div class="doc_text">
  <p>Yet to be written.</p>
</div>

<!-------------------------------------------------------------------------- -->
<div class="doc_subsection">
  <a name="insert-null-profiling-rs">Measure profiling framework overhead</a>
</div>
<div class="doc_text">
  <p>Yet to be written.</p>
</div>

<!-------------------------------------------------------------------------- -->
<div class="doc_subsection">
  <a name="insert-rs-profiling-framework">Insert random sampling instrumentation framework</a>
</div>
<div class="doc_text">
  <p>Yet to be written.</p>
</div>

<!-------------------------------------------------------------------------- -->
<div class="doc_subsection">
  <a name="instcombine">Combine redundant instructions</a>
</div>
<div class="doc_text">
  <p>Yet to be written.</p>
</div>

<!-------------------------------------------------------------------------- -->
<div class="doc_subsection">
  <a name="internalize">Internalize Global Symbols</a>
</div>
<div class="doc_text">
  <p>Yet to be written.</p>
</div>

<!-------------------------------------------------------------------------- -->
<div class="doc_subsection">
  <a name="ipconstprop">Interprocedural constant propagation</a>
</div>
<div class="doc_text">
  <p>Yet to be written.</p>
</div>

<!-------------------------------------------------------------------------- -->
<div class="doc_subsection">
  <a name="ipsccp">Interprocedural Sparse Conditional Constant Propagation</a>
</div>
<div class="doc_text">
  <p>Yet to be written.</p>
</div>

<!-------------------------------------------------------------------------- -->
<div class="doc_subsection">
  <a name="lcssa">Loop-Closed SSA Form Pass</a>
</div>
<div class="doc_text">
  <p>Yet to be written.</p>
</div>

<!-------------------------------------------------------------------------- -->
<div class="doc_subsection">
  <a name="licm">Loop Invariant Code Motion</a>
</div>
<div class="doc_text">
  <p>Yet to be written.</p>
</div>

<!-------------------------------------------------------------------------- -->
<div class="doc_subsection">
  <a name="loop-extract">Extract loops into new functions</a>
</div>
<div class="doc_text">
  <p>Yet to be written.</p>
</div>

<!-------------------------------------------------------------------------- -->
<div class="doc_subsection">
  <a name="loop-extract-single">Extract at most one loop into a new function</a>
</div>
<div class="doc_text">
  <p>Yet to be written.</p>
</div>

<!-------------------------------------------------------------------------- -->
<div class="doc_subsection">
  <a name="loop-reduce">Loop Strength Reduction</a>
</div>
<div class="doc_text">
  <p>Yet to be written.</p>
</div>

<!-------------------------------------------------------------------------- -->
<div class="doc_subsection">
  <a name="loop-unroll">Unroll Loops</a>
</div>
<div class="doc_text">
  <p>Yet to be written.</p>
</div>

<!-------------------------------------------------------------------------- -->
<div class="doc_subsection">
  <a name="loop-unswitch">Unswitch Loops</a>
</div>
<div class="doc_text">
  <p>Yet to be written.</p>
</div>

<!-------------------------------------------------------------------------- -->
<div class="doc_subsection">
  <a name="loopsimplify">Canonicalize Natural Loops</a>
</div>
<div class="doc_text">
  <p>Yet to be written.</p>
</div>

<!-------------------------------------------------------------------------- -->
<div class="doc_subsection">
  <a name="lower-packed">Lower Packed Operations</a>
</div>
<div class="doc_text">
  <p>Yet to be written.</p>
</div>

<!-------------------------------------------------------------------------- -->
<div class="doc_subsection">
  <a name="lowerallocs">Lower allocations from instructions to calls</a>
</div>
<div class="doc_text">
  <p>Yet to be written.</p>
</div>

<!-------------------------------------------------------------------------- -->
<div class="doc_subsection">
  <a name="lowergc">Lower GC intrinsics, for GCless code generators</a>
</div>
<div class="doc_text">
  <p>Yet to be written.</p>
</div>

<!-------------------------------------------------------------------------- -->
<div class="doc_subsection">
  <a name="lowerinvoke">Lower Invoke and Unwind</a>
</div>
<div class="doc_text">
  <p>Yet to be written.</p>
</div>

<!-------------------------------------------------------------------------- -->
<div class="doc_subsection">
  <a name="lowerselect">Lower Selects To Branches</a>
</div>
<div class="doc_text">
  <p>Yet to be written.</p>
</div>

<!-------------------------------------------------------------------------- -->
<div class="doc_subsection">
  <a name="lowersetjmp">Lower Set Jump</a>
</div>
<div class="doc_text">
  <p>Yet to be written.</p>
</div>

<!-------------------------------------------------------------------------- -->
<div class="doc_subsection">
  <a name="lowerswitch">Lower SwitchInst's to branches</a>
</div>
<div class="doc_text">
  <p>Yet to be written.</p>
</div>

<!-------------------------------------------------------------------------- -->
<div class="doc_subsection">
  <a name="mem2reg">Promote Memory to Register</a>
</div>
<div class="doc_text">
  <p>Yet to be written.</p>
</div>

<!-------------------------------------------------------------------------- -->
<div class="doc_subsection">
  <a name="mergereturn">Unify Function Exit Nodes</a>
</div>
<div class="doc_text">
  <p>Yet to be written.</p>
</div>

<!-------------------------------------------------------------------------- -->
<div class="doc_subsection">
  <a name="predsimplify">Predicate Simplifier</a>
</div>
<div class="doc_text">
  <p>Yet to be written.</p>
</div>

<!-------------------------------------------------------------------------- -->
<div class="doc_subsection">
  <a name="prune-eh">Remove unused exception handling info</a>
</div>
<div class="doc_text">
  <p>Yet to be written.</p>
</div>

<!-------------------------------------------------------------------------- -->
<div class="doc_subsection">
  <a name="raiseallocs">Raise allocations from calls to instructions</a>
</div>
<div class="doc_text">
  <p>Yet to be written.</p>
</div>

<!-------------------------------------------------------------------------- -->
<div class="doc_subsection">
  <a name="reassociate">Reassociate Expressions</a>
</div>
<div class="doc_text">
  <p>Yet to be written.</p>
</div>

<!-------------------------------------------------------------------------- -->
<div class="doc_subsection">
  <a name="reg2mem">Demote Values to Memory</a>
</div>
<div class="doc_text">
  <p>Yet to be written.</p>
</div>

<!-------------------------------------------------------------------------- -->
<div class="doc_subsection">
  <a name="scalarrepl">Scalar Replacement of Aggregates</a>
</div>
<div class="doc_text">
  <p>Yet to be written.</p>
</div>

<!-------------------------------------------------------------------------- -->
<div class="doc_subsection">
  <a name="sccp">Sparse Conditional Constant Propagation</a>
</div>
<div class="doc_text">
  <p>Yet to be written.</p>
</div>

<!-------------------------------------------------------------------------- -->
<div class="doc_subsection">
  <a name="simplify-libcalls">Simplify well-known library calls</a>
</div>
<div class="doc_text">
  <p>Yet to be written.</p>
</div>

<!-------------------------------------------------------------------------- -->
<div class="doc_subsection">
  <a name="simplifycfg">Simplify the CFG</a>
</div>
<div class="doc_text">
  <p>Yet to be written.</p>
</div>

<!-------------------------------------------------------------------------- -->
<div class="doc_subsection">
  <a name="strip">Strip all symbols from a module</a>
</div>
<div class="doc_text">
  <p>Yet to be written.</p>
</div>

<!-------------------------------------------------------------------------- -->
<div class="doc_subsection">
  <a name="tailcallelim">Tail Call Elimination</a>
</div>
<div class="doc_text">
  <p>Yet to be written.</p>
</div>

<!-------------------------------------------------------------------------- -->
<div class="doc_subsection">
  <a name="tailduplicate">Tail Duplication</a>
</div>
<div class="doc_text">
  <p>Yet to be written.</p>
</div>

<!-- ======================================================================= -->
<div class="doc_section"> <a name="transform">Utility Passes</a></div>
<div class="doc_text">
  <p>This section describes the LLVM Utility Passes.</p>
</div>

<!-------------------------------------------------------------------------- -->
<div class="doc_subsection">
  <a name="deadarghaX0r">Dead Argument Hacking (BUGPOINT ONLY)</a>
</div>
<div class="doc_text">
  <p>Yet to be written.</p>
</div>

<!-------------------------------------------------------------------------- -->
<div class="doc_subsection">
  <a name="extract-blocks">Extract Basic Blocks From Module (BUGPOINT ONLY)</a>
</div>
<div class="doc_text">
  <p>Yet to be written.</p>
</div>

<!-------------------------------------------------------------------------- -->
<div class="doc_subsection">
  <a name="emitbitcode">Bitcode Writer</a>
</div>
<div class="doc_text">
  <p>Yet to be written.</p>
</div>

<!-------------------------------------------------------------------------- -->
<div class="doc_subsection">
  <a name="verify">Module Verifier</a>
</div>
<div class="doc_text">
  <p>Yet to be written.</p>
</div>

<!-- *********************************************************************** -->

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