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<!DOCTYPE HTML PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD HTML 4.01//EN"
                      "http://www.w3.org/TR/html4/strict.dtd">
<html>
<head>
  <title>LLVM Programmer's Manual</title>
  <link rel="stylesheet" href="llvm.css" type="text/css">
</head>
<body>

<div class="doc_title">
  LLVM Programmer's Manual
</div>

<ol>
  <li><a href="#introduction">Introduction</a></li>
  <li><a href="#general">General Information</a>
    <ul>
      <li><a href="#stl">The C++ Standard Template Library</a></li>
<!--
      <li>The <tt>-time-passes</tt> option</li>
      <li>How to use the LLVM Makefile system</li>
      <li>How to write a regression test</li>

--> 
    </ul>
  </li>
  <li><a href="#apis">Important and useful LLVM APIs</a>
    <ul>
      <li><a href="#isa">The <tt>isa&lt;&gt;</tt>, <tt>cast&lt;&gt;</tt>
and <tt>dyn_cast&lt;&gt;</tt> templates</a> </li>
      <li><a href="#DEBUG">The <tt>DEBUG()</tt> macro &amp; <tt>-debug</tt>
option</a>
        <ul>
          <li><a href="#DEBUG_TYPE">Fine grained debug info with <tt>DEBUG_TYPE</tt>
and the <tt>-debug-only</tt> option</a> </li>
        </ul>
      </li>
      <li><a href="#Statistic">The <tt>Statistic</tt> template &amp; <tt>-stats</tt>
option</a></li>
<!--
      <li>The <tt>InstVisitor</tt> template
      <li>The general graph API
--> 
      <li><a href="#ViewGraph">Viewing graphs while debugging code</a></li>
    </ul>
  </li>
  <li><a href="#common">Helpful Hints for Common Operations</a>
    <ul>
      <li><a href="#inspection">Basic Inspection and Traversal Routines</a>
        <ul>
          <li><a href="#iterate_function">Iterating over the <tt>BasicBlock</tt>s
in a <tt>Function</tt></a> </li>
          <li><a href="#iterate_basicblock">Iterating over the <tt>Instruction</tt>s
in a <tt>BasicBlock</tt></a> </li>
          <li><a href="#iterate_institer">Iterating over the <tt>Instruction</tt>s
in a <tt>Function</tt></a> </li>
          <li><a href="#iterate_convert">Turning an iterator into a
class pointer</a> </li>
          <li><a href="#iterate_complex">Finding call sites: a more
complex example</a> </li>
          <li><a href="#calls_and_invokes">Treating calls and invokes
the same way</a> </li>
          <li><a href="#iterate_chains">Iterating over def-use &amp;
use-def chains</a> </li>
        </ul>
      </li>
      <li><a href="#simplechanges">Making simple changes</a>
        <ul>
          <li><a href="#schanges_creating">Creating and inserting new
		 <tt>Instruction</tt>s</a> </li>
          <li><a href="#schanges_deleting">Deleting 		 <tt>Instruction</tt>s</a> </li>
          <li><a href="#schanges_replacing">Replacing an 		 <tt>Instruction</tt>
with another <tt>Value</tt></a> </li>
        </ul>
      </li>
<!--
    <li>Working with the Control Flow Graph
    <ul>
      <li>Accessing predecessors and successors of a <tt>BasicBlock</tt>
      <li>
      <li>
    </ul>
--> 
    </ul>
  </li>

  <li><a href="#advanced">Advanced Topics</a>
  <ul>
  <li><a href="#TypeResolve">LLVM Type Resolution</a>
  <ul>
    <li><a href="#BuildRecType">Basic Recursive Type Construction</a></li>
    <li><a href="#refineAbstractTypeTo">The <tt>refineAbstractTypeTo</tt> method</a></li>
    <li><a href="#PATypeHolder">The PATypeHolder Class</a></li>
    <li><a href="#AbstractTypeUser">The AbstractTypeUser Class</a></li>
  </ul></li>

  <li><a href="#SymbolTable">The <tt>SymbolTable</tt> class </a></li>
  </ul></li>

  <li><a href="#coreclasses">The Core LLVM Class Hierarchy Reference</a>
    <ul>
      <li><a href="#Value">The <tt>Value</tt> class</a>
        <ul>
          <li><a href="#User">The <tt>User</tt> class</a>
            <ul>
              <li><a href="#Instruction">The <tt>Instruction</tt> class</a>
                <ul>
                  <li><a href="#GetElementPtrInst">The <tt>GetElementPtrInst</tt> class</a></li>
                </ul>
              </li>
              <li><a href="#Module">The <tt>Module</tt> class</a></li>
              <li><a href="#Constant">The <tt>Constant</tt> class</a>
	        <ul>
                  <li><a href="#GlobalValue">The <tt>GlobalValue</tt> class</a>
                    <ul>
                      <li><a href="#BasicBlock">The <tt>BasicBlock</tt>class</a></li>
                      <li><a href="#Function">The <tt>Function</tt> class</a></li>
                      <li><a href="#GlobalVariable">The <tt>GlobalVariable</tt> class</a></li>
                    </ul>
                  </li>
                </ul>
              </li>
	    </ul>
	  </li>
          <li><a href="#Type">The <tt>Type</tt> class</a> </li>
          <li><a href="#Argument">The <tt>Argument</tt> class</a></li>
        </ul>
      </li>
    </ul>
  </li>
</ol>

<div class="doc_author">    
  <p>Written by <a href="mailto:sabre@nondot.org">Chris Lattner</a>, 
                <a href="mailto:dhurjati@cs.uiuc.edu">Dinakar Dhurjati</a>, 
                <a href="mailto:jstanley@cs.uiuc.edu">Joel Stanley</a>, and
                <a href="mailto:rspencer@x10sys.com">Reid Spencer</a></p>
</div>

<!-- *********************************************************************** -->
<div class="doc_section">
  <a name="introduction">Introduction </a>
</div>
<!-- *********************************************************************** -->

<div class="doc_text">

<p>This document is meant to highlight some of the important classes and
interfaces available in the LLVM source-base.  This manual is not
intended to explain what LLVM is, how it works, and what LLVM code looks
like.  It assumes that you know the basics of LLVM and are interested
in writing transformations or otherwise analyzing or manipulating the
code.</p>

<p>This document should get you oriented so that you can find your
way in the continuously growing source code that makes up the LLVM
infrastructure. Note that this manual is not intended to serve as a
replacement for reading the source code, so if you think there should be
a method in one of these classes to do something, but it's not listed,
check the source.  Links to the <a href="/doxygen/">doxygen</a> sources
are provided to make this as easy as possible.</p>

<p>The first section of this document describes general information that is
useful to know when working in the LLVM infrastructure, and the second describes
the Core LLVM classes.  In the future this manual will be extended with
information describing how to use extension libraries, such as dominator
information, CFG traversal routines, and useful utilities like the <tt><a
href="/doxygen/InstVisitor_8h-source.html">InstVisitor</a></tt> template.</p>

</div>

<!-- *********************************************************************** -->
<div class="doc_section">
  <a name="general">General Information</a>
</div>
<!-- *********************************************************************** -->

<div class="doc_text">

<p>This section contains general information that is useful if you are working
in the LLVM source-base, but that isn't specific to any particular API.</p>

</div>

<!-- ======================================================================= -->
<div class="doc_subsection">
  <a name="stl">The C++ Standard Template Library</a>
</div>

<div class="doc_text">

<p>LLVM makes heavy use of the C++ Standard Template Library (STL),
perhaps much more than you are used to, or have seen before.  Because of
this, you might want to do a little background reading in the
techniques used and capabilities of the library.  There are many good
pages that discuss the STL, and several books on the subject that you
can get, so it will not be discussed in this document.</p>

<p>Here are some useful links:</p>

<ol>

<li><a href="http://www.dinkumware.com/refxcpp.html">Dinkumware C++ Library
reference</a> - an excellent reference for the STL and other parts of the
standard C++ library.</li>

<li><a href="http://www.tempest-sw.com/cpp/">C++ In a Nutshell</a> - This is an
O'Reilly book in the making.  It has a decent 
Standard Library
Reference that rivals Dinkumware's, and is unfortunately no longer free since the book has been 
published.</li>

<li><a href="http://www.parashift.com/c++-faq-lite/">C++ Frequently Asked
Questions</a></li>

<li><a href="http://www.sgi.com/tech/stl/">SGI's STL Programmer's Guide</a> -
Contains a useful <a
href="http://www.sgi.com/tech/stl/stl_introduction.html">Introduction to the
STL</a>.</li>

<li><a href="http://www.research.att.com/%7Ebs/C++.html">Bjarne Stroustrup's C++
Page</a></li>

<li><a href="http://64.78.49.204/">
Bruce Eckel's Thinking in C++, 2nd ed. Volume 2 Revision 4.0 (even better, get
the book).</a></li>

</ol>
  
<p>You are also encouraged to take a look at the <a
href="CodingStandards.html">LLVM Coding Standards</a> guide which focuses on how
to write maintainable code more than where to put your curly braces.</p>

</div>

<!-- ======================================================================= -->
<div class="doc_subsection">
  <a name="stl">Other useful references</a>
</div>

<div class="doc_text">

<ol>
<li><a href="http://www.psc.edu/%7Esemke/cvs_branches.html">CVS
Branch and Tag Primer</a></li>
<li><a href="http://www.fortran-2000.com/ArnaudRecipes/sharedlib.html">Using
static and shared libraries across platforms</a></li>
</ol>

</div>

<!-- *********************************************************************** -->
<div class="doc_section">
  <a name="apis">Important and useful LLVM APIs</a>
</div>
<!-- *********************************************************************** -->

<div class="doc_text">

<p>Here we highlight some LLVM APIs that are generally useful and good to
know about when writing transformations.</p>

</div>

<!-- ======================================================================= -->
<div class="doc_subsection">
  <a name="isa">The isa&lt;&gt;, cast&lt;&gt; and dyn_cast&lt;&gt; templates</a>
</div>

<div class="doc_text">

<p>The LLVM source-base makes extensive use of a custom form of RTTI.
These templates have many similarities to the C++ <tt>dynamic_cast&lt;&gt;</tt>
operator, but they don't have some drawbacks (primarily stemming from
the fact that <tt>dynamic_cast&lt;&gt;</tt> only works on classes that
have a v-table). Because they are used so often, you must know what they
do and how they work. All of these templates are defined in the <a
 href="/doxygen/Casting_8h-source.html"><tt>llvm/Support/Casting.h</tt></a>
file (note that you very rarely have to include this file directly).</p>

<dl>
  <dt><tt>isa&lt;&gt;</tt>: </dt>

  <dd>The <tt>isa&lt;&gt;</tt> operator works exactly like the Java
  "<tt>instanceof</tt>" operator.  It returns true or false depending on whether
  a reference or pointer points to an instance of the specified class.  This can
  be very useful for constraint checking of various sorts (example below).</dd>

  <dt><tt>cast&lt;&gt;</tt>: </dt>

  <dd>The <tt>cast&lt;&gt;</tt> operator is a "checked cast" operation. It
  converts a pointer or reference from a base class to a derived cast, causing
  an assertion failure if it is not really an instance of the right type.  This
  should be used in cases where you have some information that makes you believe
  that something is of the right type.  An example of the <tt>isa&lt;&gt;</tt>
  and <tt>cast&lt;&gt;</tt> template is:

  <pre>
  static bool isLoopInvariant(const <a href="#Value">Value</a> *V, const Loop *L) {
    if (isa&lt;<a href="#Constant">Constant</a>&gt;(V) || isa&lt;<a href="#Argument">Argument</a>&gt;(V) || isa&lt;<a href="#GlobalValue">GlobalValue</a>&gt;(V))
      return true;

    <i>// Otherwise, it must be an instruction...</i>
    return !L-&gt;contains(cast&lt;<a href="#Instruction">Instruction</a>&gt;(V)-&gt;getParent());
  }
  </pre>

  <p>Note that you should <b>not</b> use an <tt>isa&lt;&gt;</tt> test followed
  by a <tt>cast&lt;&gt;</tt>, for that use the <tt>dyn_cast&lt;&gt;</tt>
  operator.</p>

  </dd>

  <dt><tt>dyn_cast&lt;&gt;</tt>:</dt>

  <dd>The <tt>dyn_cast&lt;&gt;</tt> operator is a "checking cast" operation. It
  checks to see if the operand is of the specified type, and if so, returns a
  pointer to it (this operator does not work with references). If the operand is
  not of the correct type, a null pointer is returned.  Thus, this works very
  much like the <tt>dynamic_cast</tt> operator in C++, and should be used in the
  same circumstances.  Typically, the <tt>dyn_cast&lt;&gt;</tt> operator is used
  in an <tt>if</tt> statement or some other flow control statement like this:

   <pre>
     if (<a href="#AllocationInst">AllocationInst</a> *AI = dyn_cast&lt;<a href="#AllocationInst">AllocationInst</a>&gt;(Val)) {
       ...
     }
   </pre>
   
   <p> This form of the <tt>if</tt> statement effectively combines together a
   call to <tt>isa&lt;&gt;</tt> and a call to <tt>cast&lt;&gt;</tt> into one
   statement, which is very convenient.</p>

   <p>Note that the <tt>dyn_cast&lt;&gt;</tt> operator, like C++'s
   <tt>dynamic_cast</tt> or Java's <tt>instanceof</tt> operator, can be abused.
   In particular you should not use big chained <tt>if/then/else</tt> blocks to
   check for lots of different variants of classes.  If you find yourself
   wanting to do this, it is much cleaner and more efficient to use the
   <tt>InstVisitor</tt> class to dispatch over the instruction type directly.</p>

    </dd>

    <dt><tt>cast_or_null&lt;&gt;</tt>: </dt>
   
    <dd>The <tt>cast_or_null&lt;&gt;</tt> operator works just like the
    <tt>cast&lt;&gt;</tt> operator, except that it allows for a null pointer as
    an argument (which it then propagates).  This can sometimes be useful,
    allowing you to combine several null checks into one.</dd>

    <dt><tt>dyn_cast_or_null&lt;&gt;</tt>: </dt>

    <dd>The <tt>dyn_cast_or_null&lt;&gt;</tt> operator works just like the
    <tt>dyn_cast&lt;&gt;</tt> operator, except that it allows for a null pointer
    as an argument (which it then propagates).  This can sometimes be useful,
    allowing you to combine several null checks into one.</dd>

  </dl>

<p>These five templates can be used with any classes, whether they have a
v-table or not.  To add support for these templates, you simply need to add
<tt>classof</tt> static methods to the class you are interested casting
to. Describing this is currently outside the scope of this document, but there
are lots of examples in the LLVM source base.</p>

</div>

<!-- ======================================================================= -->
<div class="doc_subsection">
  <a name="DEBUG">The <tt>DEBUG()</tt> macro &amp; <tt>-debug</tt> option</a>
</div>

<div class="doc_text">

<p>Often when working on your pass you will put a bunch of debugging printouts
and other code into your pass.  After you get it working, you want to remove
it... but you may need it again in the future (to work out new bugs that you run
across).</p>

<p> Naturally, because of this, you don't want to delete the debug printouts,
but you don't want them to always be noisy.  A standard compromise is to comment
them out, allowing you to enable them if you need them in the future.</p>

<p>The "<tt><a href="/doxygen/Debug_8h-source.html">llvm/Support/Debug.h</a></tt>"
file provides a macro named <tt>DEBUG()</tt> that is a much nicer solution to
this problem.  Basically, you can put arbitrary code into the argument of the
<tt>DEBUG</tt> macro, and it is only executed if '<tt>opt</tt>' (or any other
tool) is run with the '<tt>-debug</tt>' command line argument:</p>

  <pre>     ... <br>     DEBUG(std::cerr &lt;&lt; "I am here!\n");<br>     ...<br></pre>

<p>Then you can run your pass like this:</p>

  <pre>  $ opt &lt; a.bc &gt; /dev/null -mypass<br>    &lt;no output&gt;<br>  $ opt &lt; a.bc &gt; /dev/null -mypass -debug<br>    I am here!<br>  $<br></pre>

<p>Using the <tt>DEBUG()</tt> macro instead of a home-brewed solution allows you
to not have to create "yet another" command line option for the debug output for
your pass.  Note that <tt>DEBUG()</tt> macros are disabled for optimized builds,
so they do not cause a performance impact at all (for the same reason, they
should also not contain side-effects!).</p>

<p>One additional nice thing about the <tt>DEBUG()</tt> macro is that you can
enable or disable it directly in gdb.  Just use "<tt>set DebugFlag=0</tt>" or
"<tt>set DebugFlag=1</tt>" from the gdb if the program is running.  If the
program hasn't been started yet, you can always just run it with
<tt>-debug</tt>.</p>

</div>

<!-- _______________________________________________________________________ -->
<div class="doc_subsubsection">
  <a name="DEBUG_TYPE">Fine grained debug info with <tt>DEBUG_TYPE</tt> and
  the <tt>-debug-only</tt> option</a>
</div>

<div class="doc_text">

<p>Sometimes you may find yourself in a situation where enabling <tt>-debug</tt>
just turns on <b>too much</b> information (such as when working on the code
generator).  If you want to enable debug information with more fine-grained
control, you define the <tt>DEBUG_TYPE</tt> macro and the <tt>-debug</tt> only
option as follows:</p>

  <pre>     ...<br>     DEBUG(std::cerr &lt;&lt; "No debug type\n");<br>     #undef  DEBUG_TYPE<br>     #define DEBUG_TYPE "foo"<br>     DEBUG(std::cerr &lt;&lt; "'foo' debug type\n");<br>     #undef  DEBUG_TYPE<br>     #define DEBUG_TYPE "bar"<br>     DEBUG(std::cerr &lt;&lt; "'bar' debug type\n");<br>     #undef  DEBUG_TYPE<br>     #define DEBUG_TYPE ""<br>     DEBUG(std::cerr &lt;&lt; "No debug type (2)\n");<br>     ...<br></pre>

<p>Then you can run your pass like this:</p>

  <pre>  $ opt &lt; a.bc &gt; /dev/null -mypass<br>    &lt;no output&gt;<br>  $ opt &lt; a.bc &gt; /dev/null -mypass -debug<br>    No debug type<br>    'foo' debug type<br>    'bar' debug type<br>    No debug type (2)<br>  $ opt &lt; a.bc &gt; /dev/null -mypass -debug-only=foo<br>    'foo' debug type<br>  $ opt &lt; a.bc &gt; /dev/null -mypass -debug-only=bar<br>    'bar' debug type<br>  $<br></pre>

<p>Of course, in practice, you should only set <tt>DEBUG_TYPE</tt> at the top of
a file, to specify the debug type for the entire module (if you do this before
you <tt>#include "llvm/Support/Debug.h"</tt>, you don't have to insert the ugly
<tt>#undef</tt>'s).  Also, you should use names more meaningful than "foo" and
"bar", because there is no system in place to ensure that names do not
conflict. If two different modules use the same string, they will all be turned
on when the name is specified. This allows, for example, all debug information
for instruction scheduling to be enabled with <tt>-debug-type=InstrSched</tt>,
even if the source lives in multiple files.</p>

</div>

<!-- ======================================================================= -->
<div class="doc_subsection">
  <a name="Statistic">The <tt>Statistic</tt> template &amp; <tt>-stats</tt>
  option</a>
</div>

<div class="doc_text">

<p>The "<tt><a
href="/doxygen/Statistic_8h-source.html">llvm/ADT/Statistic.h</a></tt>" file
provides a template named <tt>Statistic</tt> that is used as a unified way to
keep track of what the LLVM compiler is doing and how effective various
optimizations are.  It is useful to see what optimizations are contributing to
making a particular program run faster.</p>

<p>Often you may run your pass on some big program, and you're interested to see
how many times it makes a certain transformation.  Although you can do this with
hand inspection, or some ad-hoc method, this is a real pain and not very useful
for big programs.  Using the <tt>Statistic</tt> template makes it very easy to
keep track of this information, and the calculated information is presented in a
uniform manner with the rest of the passes being executed.</p>

<p>There are many examples of <tt>Statistic</tt> uses, but the basics of using
it are as follows:</p>

<ol>
    <li>Define your statistic like this:
      <pre>static Statistic&lt;&gt; NumXForms("mypassname", "The # of times I did stuff");<br></pre>

      <p>The <tt>Statistic</tt> template can emulate just about any data-type,
      but if you do not specify a template argument, it defaults to acting like
      an unsigned int counter (this is usually what you want).</p></li>

    <li>Whenever you make a transformation, bump the counter:
      <pre>   ++NumXForms;   // I did stuff<br></pre>
    </li>
  </ol>

  <p>That's all you have to do.  To get '<tt>opt</tt>' to print out the
  statistics gathered, use the '<tt>-stats</tt>' option:</p>

  <pre>   $ opt -stats -mypassname &lt; program.bc &gt; /dev/null<br>    ... statistic output ...<br></pre>

  <p> When running <tt>gccas</tt> on a C file from the SPEC benchmark
suite, it gives a report that looks like this:</p>

  <pre>   7646 bytecodewriter  - Number of normal instructions<br>    725 bytecodewriter  - Number of oversized instructions<br> 129996 bytecodewriter  - Number of bytecode bytes written<br>   2817 raise           - Number of insts DCEd or constprop'd<br>   3213 raise           - Number of cast-of-self removed<br>   5046 raise           - Number of expression trees converted<br>     75 raise           - Number of other getelementptr's formed<br>    138 raise           - Number of load/store peepholes<br>     42 deadtypeelim    - Number of unused typenames removed from symtab<br>    392 funcresolve     - Number of varargs functions resolved<br>     27 globaldce       - Number of global variables removed<br>      2 adce            - Number of basic blocks removed<br>    134 cee             - Number of branches revectored<br>     49 cee             - Number of setcc instruction eliminated<br>    532 gcse            - Number of loads removed<br>   2919 gcse            - Number of instructions removed<br>     86 indvars         - Number of canonical indvars added<br>     87 indvars         - Number of aux indvars removed<br>     25 instcombine     - Number of dead inst eliminate<br>    434 instcombine     - Number of insts combined<br>    248 licm            - Number of load insts hoisted<br>   1298 licm            - Number of insts hoisted to a loop pre-header<br>      3 licm            - Number of insts hoisted to multiple loop preds (bad, no loop pre-header)<br>     75 mem2reg         - Number of alloca's promoted<br>   1444 cfgsimplify     - Number of blocks simplified<br></pre>

<p>Obviously, with so many optimizations, having a unified framework for this
stuff is very nice.  Making your pass fit well into the framework makes it more
maintainable and useful.</p>

</div>

<!-- ======================================================================= -->
<div class="doc_subsection">
  <a name="ViewGraph">Viewing graphs while debugging code</a>
</div>

<div class="doc_text">

<p>Several of the important data structures in LLVM are graphs: for example
CFGs made out of LLVM <a href="#BasicBlock">BasicBlock</a>s, CFGs made out of
LLVM <a href="CodeGenerator.html#machinebasicblock">MachineBasicBlock</a>s, and
<a href="CodeGenerator.html#selectiondag_intro">Instruction Selection
DAGs</a>.  In many cases, while debugging various parts of the compiler, it is
nice to instantly visualize these graphs.</p>

<p>LLVM provides several callbacks that are available in a debug build to do
exactly that.  If you call the <tt>Function::viewCFG()</tt> method, for example,
the current LLVM tool will pop up a window containing the CFG for the function
where each basic block is a node in the graph, and each node contains the
instructions in the block.  Similarly, there also exists 
<tt>Function::viewCFGOnly()</tt> (does not include the instructions), the
<tt>MachineFunction::viewCFG()</tt> and <tt>MachineFunction::viewCFGOnly()</tt>,
and the <tt>SelectionDAG::viewGraph()</tt> methods.  Within GDB, for example,
you can usually use something like "<tt>call DAG.viewGraph()</tt>" to pop
up a window.  Alternatively, you can sprinkle calls to these functions in your
code in places you want to debug.</p>

<p>Getting this to work requires a small amount of configuration.  On Unix
systems with X11, install the <a href="http://www.graphviz.org">graphviz</a>
toolkit, and make sure 'dot' and 'gv' are in your path.  If you are running on
Mac OS/X, download and install the Mac OS/X <a 
href="http://www.pixelglow.com/graphviz/">Graphviz program</a>, and add
<tt>/Applications/Graphviz.app/Contents/MacOS/</tt> (or whereever you install
it) to your path.  Once in your system and path are set up, rerun the LLVM
configure script and rebuild LLVM to enable this functionality.</p>

</div>


<!-- *********************************************************************** -->
<div class="doc_section">
  <a name="common">Helpful Hints for Common Operations</a>
</div>
<!-- *********************************************************************** -->

<div class="doc_text">

<p>This section describes how to perform some very simple transformations of
LLVM code.  This is meant to give examples of common idioms used, showing the
practical side of LLVM transformations.  <p> Because this is a "how-to" section,
you should also read about the main classes that you will be working with.  The
<a href="#coreclasses">Core LLVM Class Hierarchy Reference</a> contains details
and descriptions of the main classes that you should know about.</p>

</div>

<!-- NOTE: this section should be heavy on example code -->
<!-- ======================================================================= -->
<div class="doc_subsection">
  <a name="inspection">Basic Inspection and Traversal Routines</a>
</div>

<div class="doc_text">

<p>The LLVM compiler infrastructure have many different data structures that may
be traversed.  Following the example of the C++ standard template library, the
techniques used to traverse these various data structures are all basically the
same.  For a enumerable sequence of values, the <tt>XXXbegin()</tt> function (or
method) returns an iterator to the start of the sequence, the <tt>XXXend()</tt>
function returns an iterator pointing to one past the last valid element of the
sequence, and there is some <tt>XXXiterator</tt> data type that is common
between the two operations.</p>

<p>Because the pattern for iteration is common across many different aspects of
the program representation, the standard template library algorithms may be used
on them, and it is easier to remember how to iterate. First we show a few common
examples of the data structures that need to be traversed.  Other data
structures are traversed in very similar ways.</p>

</div>

<!-- _______________________________________________________________________ -->
<div class="doc_subsubsection">
  <a name="iterate_function">Iterating over the </a><a
  href="#BasicBlock"><tt>BasicBlock</tt></a>s in a <a
  href="#Function"><tt>Function</tt></a>
</div>

<div class="doc_text">

<p>It's quite common to have a <tt>Function</tt> instance that you'd like to
transform in some way; in particular, you'd like to manipulate its
<tt>BasicBlock</tt>s.  To facilitate this, you'll need to iterate over all of
the <tt>BasicBlock</tt>s that constitute the <tt>Function</tt>. The following is
an example that prints the name of a <tt>BasicBlock</tt> and the number of
<tt>Instruction</tt>s it contains:</p>

  <pre>  // func is a pointer to a Function instance<br>  for (Function::iterator i = func-&gt;begin(), e = func-&gt;end(); i != e; ++i) {<br><br>      // print out the name of the basic block if it has one, and then the<br>      // number of instructions that it contains<br><br>      cerr &lt;&lt; "Basic block (name=" &lt;&lt; i-&gt;getName() &lt;&lt; ") has " <br>           &lt;&lt; i-&gt;size() &lt;&lt; " instructions.\n";<br>  }<br></pre>

<p>Note that i can be used as if it were a pointer for the purposes of
invoking member functions of the <tt>Instruction</tt> class.  This is
because the indirection operator is overloaded for the iterator
classes.  In the above code, the expression <tt>i-&gt;size()</tt> is
exactly equivalent to <tt>(*i).size()</tt> just like you'd expect.</p>

</div>

<!-- _______________________________________________________________________ -->
<div class="doc_subsubsection">
  <a name="iterate_basicblock">Iterating over the </a><a
  href="#Instruction"><tt>Instruction</tt></a>s in a <a
  href="#BasicBlock"><tt>BasicBlock</tt></a>
</div>

<div class="doc_text">

<p>Just like when dealing with <tt>BasicBlock</tt>s in <tt>Function</tt>s, it's
easy to iterate over the individual instructions that make up
<tt>BasicBlock</tt>s. Here's a code snippet that prints out each instruction in
a <tt>BasicBlock</tt>:</p>

<pre>
  // blk is a pointer to a BasicBlock instance
  for (BasicBlock::iterator i = blk-&gt;begin(), e = blk-&gt;end(); i != e; ++i)
     // the next statement works since operator&lt;&lt;(ostream&amp;,...)
     // is overloaded for Instruction&amp;
     std::cerr &lt;&lt; *i &lt;&lt; "\n";
</pre>

<p>However, this isn't really the best way to print out the contents of a
<tt>BasicBlock</tt>!  Since the ostream operators are overloaded for virtually
anything you'll care about, you could have just invoked the print routine on the
basic block itself: <tt>std::cerr &lt;&lt; *blk &lt;&lt; "\n";</tt>.</p>

</div>

<!-- _______________________________________________________________________ -->
<div class="doc_subsubsection">
  <a name="iterate_institer">Iterating over the </a><a
  href="#Instruction"><tt>Instruction</tt></a>s in a <a
  href="#Function"><tt>Function</tt></a>
</div>

<div class="doc_text">

<p>If you're finding that you commonly iterate over a <tt>Function</tt>'s
<tt>BasicBlock</tt>s and then that <tt>BasicBlock</tt>'s <tt>Instruction</tt>s,
<tt>InstIterator</tt> should be used instead. You'll need to include <a
href="/doxygen/InstIterator_8h-source.html"><tt>llvm/Support/InstIterator.h</tt></a>,
and then instantiate <tt>InstIterator</tt>s explicitly in your code.  Here's a
small example that shows how to dump all instructions in a function to the standard error stream:<p>

  <pre>#include "<a href="/doxygen/InstIterator_8h-source.html">llvm/Support/InstIterator.h</a>"<br>...<br>// Suppose F is a ptr to a function<br>for (inst_iterator i = inst_begin(F), e = inst_end(F); i != e; ++i)<br>  cerr &lt;&lt; *i &lt;&lt; "\n";<br></pre>
Easy, isn't it?  You can also use <tt>InstIterator</tt>s to fill a
worklist with its initial contents.  For example, if you wanted to
initialize a worklist to contain all instructions in a <tt>Function</tt>
F, all you would need to do is something like:
  <pre>std::set&lt;Instruction*&gt; worklist;<br>worklist.insert(inst_begin(F), inst_end(F));<br></pre>

<p>The STL set <tt>worklist</tt> would now contain all instructions in the
<tt>Function</tt> pointed to by F.</p>

</div>

<!-- _______________________________________________________________________ -->
<div class="doc_subsubsection">
  <a name="iterate_convert">Turning an iterator into a class pointer (and
  vice-versa)</a>
</div>

<div class="doc_text">

<p>Sometimes, it'll be useful to grab a reference (or pointer) to a class
instance when all you've got at hand is an iterator.  Well, extracting
a reference or a pointer from an iterator is very straight-forward.
Assuming that <tt>i</tt> is a <tt>BasicBlock::iterator</tt> and <tt>j</tt>
is a <tt>BasicBlock::const_iterator</tt>:</p>

  <pre>    Instruction&amp; inst = *i;   // grab reference to instruction reference<br>    Instruction* pinst = &amp;*i; // grab pointer to instruction reference<br>    const Instruction&amp; inst = *j;<br></pre>

<p>However, the iterators you'll be working with in the LLVM framework are
special: they will automatically convert to a ptr-to-instance type whenever they
need to.  Instead of dereferencing the iterator and then taking the address of
the result, you can simply assign the iterator to the proper pointer type and
you get the dereference and address-of operation as a result of the assignment
(behind the scenes, this is a result of overloading casting mechanisms).  Thus
the last line of the last example,</p>

  <pre>Instruction* pinst = &amp;*i;</pre>

<p>is semantically equivalent to</p>

  <pre>Instruction* pinst = i;</pre>

<p>It's also possible to turn a class pointer into the corresponding iterator,
and this is a constant time operation (very efficient).  The following code
snippet illustrates use of the conversion constructors provided by LLVM
iterators.  By using these, you can explicitly grab the iterator of something
without actually obtaining it via iteration over some structure:</p>

  <pre>void printNextInstruction(Instruction* inst) {<br>    BasicBlock::iterator it(inst);<br>    ++it; // after this line, it refers to the instruction after *inst.<br>    if (it != inst-&gt;getParent()-&gt;end()) cerr &lt;&lt; *it &lt;&lt; "\n";<br>}<br></pre>

</div>

<!--_______________________________________________________________________-->
<div class="doc_subsubsection">
  <a name="iterate_complex">Finding call sites: a slightly more complex
  example</a>
</div>

<div class="doc_text">

<p>Say that you're writing a FunctionPass and would like to count all the
locations in the entire module (that is, across every <tt>Function</tt>) where a
certain function (i.e., some <tt>Function</tt>*) is already in scope.  As you'll
learn later, you may want to use an <tt>InstVisitor</tt> to accomplish this in a
much more straight-forward manner, but this example will allow us to explore how
you'd do it if you didn't have <tt>InstVisitor</tt> around. In pseudocode, this
is what we want to do:</p>

  <pre>initialize callCounter to zero<br>for each Function f in the Module<br>    for each BasicBlock b in f<br>      for each Instruction i in b<br>        if (i is a CallInst and calls the given function)<br>          increment callCounter<br></pre>

<p>And the actual code is (remember, since we're writing a
<tt>FunctionPass</tt>, our <tt>FunctionPass</tt>-derived class simply has to
override the <tt>runOnFunction</tt> method...):</p>

  <pre>Function* targetFunc = ...;<br><br>class OurFunctionPass : public FunctionPass {<br>  public:<br>    OurFunctionPass(): callCounter(0) { }<br><br>    virtual runOnFunction(Function&amp; F) {<br> 	for (Function::iterator b = F.begin(), be = F.end(); b != be; ++b) {<br> 	    for (BasicBlock::iterator i = b-&gt;begin(); ie = b-&gt;end(); i != ie; ++i) {<br> 		if (<a
 href="#CallInst">CallInst</a>* callInst = <a href="#isa">dyn_cast</a>&lt;<a
 href="#CallInst">CallInst</a>&gt;(&amp;*i)) {<br> 		    // we know we've encountered a call instruction, so we<br> 		    // need to determine if it's a call to the<br>	            // function pointed to by m_func or not.<br>  <br> 		    if (callInst-&gt;getCalledFunction() == targetFunc)<br> 			++callCounter;<br> 	    }<br> 	}<br>    }<br>    <br>  private:<br>    unsigned  callCounter;<br>};<br></pre>

</div>

<!--_______________________________________________________________________-->
<div class="doc_subsubsection">
  <a name="calls_and_invokes">Treating calls and invokes the same way</a>
</div>

<div class="doc_text">

<p>You may have noticed that the previous example was a bit oversimplified in
that it did not deal with call sites generated by 'invoke' instructions. In
this, and in other situations, you may find that you want to treat
<tt>CallInst</tt>s and <tt>InvokeInst</tt>s the same way, even though their
most-specific common base class is <tt>Instruction</tt>, which includes lots of
less closely-related things. For these cases, LLVM provides a handy wrapper
class called <a
href="http://llvm.cs.uiuc.edu/doxygen/classllvm_1_1CallSite.html"><tt>CallSite</tt></a>.
It is essentially a wrapper around an <tt>Instruction</tt> pointer, with some
methods that provide functionality common to <tt>CallInst</tt>s and
<tt>InvokeInst</tt>s.</p>

<p>This class has "value semantics": it should be passed by value, not by
reference and it should not be dynamically allocated or deallocated using
<tt>operator new</tt> or <tt>operator delete</tt>. It is efficiently copyable,
assignable and constructable, with costs equivalents to that of a bare pointer.
If you look at its definition, it has only a single pointer member.</p>

</div>

<!--_______________________________________________________________________-->
<div class="doc_subsubsection">
  <a name="iterate_chains">Iterating over def-use &amp; use-def chains</a>
</div>

<div class="doc_text">

<p>Frequently, we might have an instance of the <a
href="/doxygen/structllvm_1_1Value.html">Value Class</a> and we want to
determine which <tt>User</tt>s use the <tt>Value</tt>.  The list of all
<tt>User</tt>s of a particular <tt>Value</tt> is called a <i>def-use</i> chain.
For example, let's say we have a <tt>Function*</tt> named <tt>F</tt> to a
particular function <tt>foo</tt>. Finding all of the instructions that
<i>use</i> <tt>foo</tt> is as simple as iterating over the <i>def-use</i> chain
of <tt>F</tt>:</p>

  <pre>Function* F = ...;<br><br>for (Value::use_iterator i = F-&gt;use_begin(), e = F-&gt;use_end(); i != e; ++i) {<br>    if (Instruction *Inst = dyn_cast&lt;Instruction&gt;(*i)) {<br>        cerr &lt;&lt; "F is used in instruction:\n";<br>        cerr &lt;&lt; *Inst &lt;&lt; "\n";<br>    }<br>}<br></pre>

<p>Alternately, it's common to have an instance of the <a
href="/doxygen/classllvm_1_1User.html">User Class</a> and need to know what
<tt>Value</tt>s are used by it.  The list of all <tt>Value</tt>s used by a
<tt>User</tt> is known as a <i>use-def</i> chain.  Instances of class
<tt>Instruction</tt> are common <tt>User</tt>s, so we might want to iterate over
all of the values that a particular instruction uses (that is, the operands of
the particular <tt>Instruction</tt>):</p>

  <pre>Instruction* pi = ...;<br><br>for (User::op_iterator i = pi-&gt;op_begin(), e = pi-&gt;op_end(); i != e; ++i) {<br>    Value* v = *i;<br>    ...<br>}<br></pre>

<!--
  def-use chains ("finding all users of"): Value::use_begin/use_end
  use-def chains ("finding all values used"): User::op_begin/op_end [op=operand]
-->

</div>

<!-- ======================================================================= -->
<div class="doc_subsection">
  <a name="simplechanges">Making simple changes</a>
</div>

<div class="doc_text">

<p>There are some primitive transformation operations present in the LLVM
infrastructure that are worth knowing about.  When performing
transformations, it's fairly common to manipulate the contents of basic
blocks. This section describes some of the common methods for doing so
and gives example code.</p>

</div>

<!--_______________________________________________________________________-->
<div class="doc_subsubsection">
  <a name="schanges_creating">Creating and inserting new
  <tt>Instruction</tt>s</a>
</div>

<div class="doc_text">

<p><i>Instantiating Instructions</i></p>

<p>Creation of <tt>Instruction</tt>s is straight-forward: simply call the
constructor for the kind of instruction to instantiate and provide the necessary
parameters. For example, an <tt>AllocaInst</tt> only <i>requires</i> a
(const-ptr-to) <tt>Type</tt>. Thus:</p> 

<pre>AllocaInst* ai = new AllocaInst(Type::IntTy);</pre>

<p>will create an <tt>AllocaInst</tt> instance that represents the allocation of
one integer in the current stack frame, at runtime. Each <tt>Instruction</tt>
subclass is likely to have varying default parameters which change the semantics
of the instruction, so refer to the <a
href="/doxygen/classllvm_1_1Instruction.html">doxygen documentation for the subclass of
Instruction</a> that you're interested in instantiating.</p>

<p><i>Naming values</i></p>

<p>It is very useful to name the values of instructions when you're able to, as
this facilitates the debugging of your transformations.  If you end up looking
at generated LLVM machine code, you definitely want to have logical names
associated with the results of instructions!  By supplying a value for the
<tt>Name</tt> (default) parameter of the <tt>Instruction</tt> constructor, you
associate a logical name with the result of the instruction's execution at
runtime.  For example, say that I'm writing a transformation that dynamically
allocates space for an integer on the stack, and that integer is going to be
used as some kind of index by some other code.  To accomplish this, I place an
<tt>AllocaInst</tt> at the first point in the first <tt>BasicBlock</tt> of some
<tt>Function</tt>, and I'm intending to use it within the same
<tt>Function</tt>. I might do:</p>

  <pre>AllocaInst* pa = new AllocaInst(Type::IntTy, 0, "indexLoc");</pre>

<p>where <tt>indexLoc</tt> is now the logical name of the instruction's
execution value, which is a pointer to an integer on the runtime stack.</p>

<p><i>Inserting instructions</i></p>

<p>There are essentially two ways to insert an <tt>Instruction</tt>
into an existing sequence of instructions that form a <tt>BasicBlock</tt>:</p>

<ul>
  <li>Insertion into an explicit instruction list

    <p>Given a <tt>BasicBlock* pb</tt>, an <tt>Instruction* pi</tt> within that
    <tt>BasicBlock</tt>, and a newly-created instruction we wish to insert
    before <tt>*pi</tt>, we do the following: </p>

      <pre>  BasicBlock *pb = ...;<br>  Instruction *pi = ...;<br>  Instruction *newInst = new Instruction(...);<br>  pb-&gt;getInstList().insert(pi, newInst); // inserts newInst before pi in pb<br></pre>

    <p>Appending to the end of a <tt>BasicBlock</tt> is so common that
    the <tt>Instruction</tt> class and <tt>Instruction</tt>-derived
    classes provide constructors which take a pointer to a
    <tt>BasicBlock</tt> to be appended to. For example code that
    looked like: </p>

      <pre>  BasicBlock *pb = ...;<br>  Instruction *newInst = new Instruction(...);<br>  pb-&gt;getInstList().push_back(newInst); // appends newInst to pb<br></pre>

    <p>becomes: </p>

      <pre>  BasicBlock *pb = ...;<br>  Instruction *newInst = new Instruction(..., pb);<br></pre>

    <p>which is much cleaner, especially if you are creating
    long instruction streams.</p></li>

  <li>Insertion into an implicit instruction list

    <p><tt>Instruction</tt> instances that are already in <tt>BasicBlock</tt>s
    are implicitly associated with an existing instruction list: the instruction
    list of the enclosing basic block. Thus, we could have accomplished the same
    thing as the above code without being given a <tt>BasicBlock</tt> by doing:
    </p>

      <pre>  Instruction *pi = ...;<br>  Instruction *newInst = new Instruction(...);<br>  pi-&gt;getParent()-&gt;getInstList().insert(pi, newInst);<br></pre>

    <p>In fact, this sequence of steps occurs so frequently that the
    <tt>Instruction</tt> class and <tt>Instruction</tt>-derived classes provide
    constructors which take (as a default parameter) a pointer to an
    <tt>Instruction</tt> which the newly-created <tt>Instruction</tt> should
    precede.  That is, <tt>Instruction</tt> constructors are capable of
    inserting the newly-created instance into the <tt>BasicBlock</tt> of a
    provided instruction, immediately before that instruction.  Using an
    <tt>Instruction</tt> constructor with a <tt>insertBefore</tt> (default)
    parameter, the above code becomes:</p>

      <pre>Instruction* pi = ...;<br>Instruction* newInst = new Instruction(..., pi);<br></pre>

    <p>which is much cleaner, especially if you're creating a lot of
instructions and adding them to <tt>BasicBlock</tt>s.</p></li>
</ul>

</div>

<!--_______________________________________________________________________-->
<div class="doc_subsubsection">
  <a name="schanges_deleting">Deleting <tt>Instruction</tt>s</a>
</div>

<div class="doc_text">

<p>Deleting an instruction from an existing sequence of instructions that form a
<a href="#BasicBlock"><tt>BasicBlock</tt></a> is very straight-forward. First,
you must have a pointer to the instruction that you wish to delete.  Second, you
need to obtain the pointer to that instruction's basic block. You use the
pointer to the basic block to get its list of instructions and then use the
erase function to remove your instruction. For example:</p>

  <pre>  <a href="#Instruction">Instruction</a> *I = .. ;<br>  <a
 href="#BasicBlock">BasicBlock</a> *BB = I-&gt;getParent();<br>  BB-&gt;getInstList().erase(I);<br></pre>

</div>

<!--_______________________________________________________________________-->
<div class="doc_subsubsection">
  <a name="schanges_replacing">Replacing an <tt>Instruction</tt> with another
  <tt>Value</tt></a>
</div>

<div class="doc_text">

<p><i>Replacing individual instructions</i></p>

<p>Including "<a href="/doxygen/BasicBlockUtils_8h-source.html">llvm/Transforms/Utils/BasicBlockUtils.h</a>"
permits use of two very useful replace functions: <tt>ReplaceInstWithValue</tt>
and <tt>ReplaceInstWithInst</tt>.</p>

<h4><a name="schanges_deleting">Deleting <tt>Instruction</tt>s</a></h4>

<ul>
  <li><tt>ReplaceInstWithValue</tt>

    <p>This function replaces all uses (within a basic block) of a given
    instruction with a value, and then removes the original instruction. The
    following example illustrates the replacement of the result of a particular
    <tt>AllocaInst</tt> that allocates memory for a single integer with a null
    pointer to an integer.</p>

      <pre>AllocaInst* instToReplace = ...;<br>BasicBlock::iterator ii(instToReplace);<br>ReplaceInstWithValue(instToReplace-&gt;getParent()-&gt;getInstList(), ii,<br>                     Constant::getNullValue(PointerType::get(Type::IntTy)));<br></pre></li>

  <li><tt>ReplaceInstWithInst</tt> 

    <p>This function replaces a particular instruction with another
    instruction. The following example illustrates the replacement of one
    <tt>AllocaInst</tt> with another.</p>

      <pre>AllocaInst* instToReplace = ...;<br>BasicBlock::iterator ii(instToReplace);<br>ReplaceInstWithInst(instToReplace-&gt;getParent()-&gt;getInstList(), ii,<br>                    new AllocaInst(Type::IntTy, 0, "ptrToReplacedInt"));<br></pre></li>
</ul>

<p><i>Replacing multiple uses of <tt>User</tt>s and <tt>Value</tt>s</i></p>

<p>You can use <tt>Value::replaceAllUsesWith</tt> and
<tt>User::replaceUsesOfWith</tt> to change more than one use at a time.  See the
doxygen documentation for the <a href="/doxygen/structllvm_1_1Value.html">Value Class</a>
and <a href="/doxygen/classllvm_1_1User.html">User Class</a>, respectively, for more
information.</p>

<!-- Value::replaceAllUsesWith User::replaceUsesOfWith Point out:
include/llvm/Transforms/Utils/ especially BasicBlockUtils.h with:
ReplaceInstWithValue, ReplaceInstWithInst -->

</div>

<!-- *********************************************************************** -->
<div class="doc_section">
  <a name="advanced">Advanced Topics</a>
</div>
<!-- *********************************************************************** -->

<div class="doc_text">
<p>
This section describes some of the advanced or obscure API's that most clients
do not need to be aware of.  These API's tend manage the inner workings of the
LLVM system, and only need to be accessed in unusual circumstances.
</p>
</div>

<!-- ======================================================================= -->
<div class="doc_subsection">
  <a name="TypeResolve">LLVM Type Resolution</a>
</div>

<div class="doc_text">

<p>
The LLVM type system has a very simple goal: allow clients to compare types for
structural equality with a simple pointer comparison (aka a shallow compare).
This goal makes clients much simpler and faster, and is used throughout the LLVM
system.
</p>

<p>
Unfortunately achieving this goal is not a simple matter.  In particular,
recursive types and late resolution of opaque types makes the situation very
difficult to handle.  Fortunately, for the most part, our implementation makes
most clients able to be completely unaware of the nasty internal details.  The
primary case where clients are exposed to the inner workings of it are when
building a recursive type.  In addition to this case, the LLVM bytecode reader,
assembly parser, and linker also have to be aware of the inner workings of this
system.
</p>

<p>
For our purposes below, we need three concepts.  First, an "Opaque Type" is 
exactly as defined in the <a href="LangRef.html#t_opaque">language 
reference</a>.  Second an "Abstract Type" is any type which includes an 
opaque type as part of its type graph (for example "<tt>{ opaque, int }</tt>").
Third, a concrete type is a type that is not an abstract type (e.g. "<tt>[ int, 
float }</tt>").
</p>

</div>

<!-- ______________________________________________________________________ -->
<div class="doc_subsubsection">
  <a name="BuildRecType">Basic Recursive Type Construction</a>
</div>

<div class="doc_text">

<p>
Because the most common question is "how do I build a recursive type with LLVM",
we answer it now and explain it as we go.  Here we include enough to cause this
to be emitted to an output .ll file:
</p>

<pre>
   %mylist = type { %mylist*, int }
</pre>

<p>
To build this, use the following LLVM APIs:
</p>

<pre>
  //<i> Create the initial outer struct.</i>
  <a href="#PATypeHolder">PATypeHolder</a> StructTy = OpaqueType::get();
  std::vector&lt;const Type*&gt; Elts;
  Elts.push_back(PointerType::get(StructTy));
  Elts.push_back(Type::IntTy);
  StructType *NewSTy = StructType::get(Elts);

  //<i> At this point, NewSTy = "{ opaque*, int }". Tell VMCore that</i>
  //<i> the struct and the opaque type are actually the same.</i>
  cast&lt;OpaqueType&gt;(StructTy.get())-&gt;<a href="#refineAbstractTypeTo">refineAbstractTypeTo</a>(NewSTy);

  // <i>NewSTy is potentially invalidated, but StructTy (a <a href="#PATypeHolder">PATypeHolder</a>) is</i>
  // <i>kept up-to-date.</i>
  NewSTy = cast&lt;StructType&gt;(StructTy.get());

  // <i>Add a name for the type to the module symbol table (optional).</i>
  MyModule-&gt;addTypeName("mylist", NewSTy);
</pre>

<p>
This code shows the basic approach used to build recursive types: build a
non-recursive type using 'opaque', then use type unification to close the cycle.
The type unification step is performed by the <tt><a
ref="#refineAbstractTypeTo">refineAbstractTypeTo</a></tt> method, which is
described next.  After that, we describe the <a
href="#PATypeHolder">PATypeHolder class</a>.
</p>

</div>

<!-- ______________________________________________________________________ -->
<div class="doc_subsubsection">
  <a name="refineAbstractTypeTo">The <tt>refineAbstractTypeTo</tt> method</a>
</div>

<div class="doc_text">
<p>
The <tt>refineAbstractTypeTo</tt> method starts the type unification process.
While this method is actually a member of the DerivedType class, it is most
often used on OpaqueType instances.  Type unification is actually a recursive
process.  After unification, types can become structurally isomorphic to
existing types, and all duplicates are deleted (to preserve pointer equality).
</p>

<p>
In the example above, the OpaqueType object is definitely deleted.
Additionally, if there is an "{ \2*, int}" type already created in the system,
the pointer and struct type created are <b>also</b> deleted.  Obviously whenever
a type is deleted, any "Type*" pointers in the program are invalidated.  As
such, it is safest to avoid having <i>any</i> "Type*" pointers to abstract types
live across a call to <tt>refineAbstractTypeTo</tt> (note that non-abstract
types can never move or be deleted).  To deal with this, the <a
href="#PATypeHolder">PATypeHolder</a> class is used to maintain a stable
reference to a possibly refined type, and the <a
href="#AbstractTypeUser">AbstractTypeUser</a> class is used to update more
complex datastructures.
</p>

</div>

<!-- ______________________________________________________________________ -->
<div class="doc_subsubsection">
  <a name="PATypeHolder">The PATypeHolder Class</a>
</div>

<div class="doc_text">
<p>
PATypeHolder is a form of a "smart pointer" for Type objects.  When VMCore
happily goes about nuking types that become isomorphic to existing types, it
automatically updates all PATypeHolder objects to point to the new type.  In the
example above, this allows the code to maintain a pointer to the resultant
resolved recursive type, even though the Type*'s are potentially invalidated.
</p>

<p>
PATypeHolder is an extremely light-weight object that uses a lazy union-find
implementation to update pointers.  For example the pointer from a Value to its
Type is maintained by PATypeHolder objects.
</p>

</div>

<!-- ______________________________________________________________________ -->
<div class="doc_subsubsection">
  <a name="AbstractTypeUser">The AbstractTypeUser Class</a>
</div>

<div class="doc_text">

<p>
Some data structures need more to perform more complex updates when types get
resolved.  The <a href="#SymbolTable">SymbolTable</a> class, for example, needs
move and potentially merge type planes in its representation when a pointer
changes.</p>

<p>
To support this, a class can derive from the AbstractTypeUser class.  This class
allows it to get callbacks when certain types are resolved.  To register to get
callbacks for a particular type, the DerivedType::{add/remove}AbstractTypeUser
methods can be called on a type.  Note that these methods only work for <i>
abstract</i> types.  Concrete types (those that do not include an opaque objects
somewhere) can never be refined.
</p>
</div>


<!-- ======================================================================= -->
<div class="doc_subsection">
  <a name="SymbolTable">The <tt>SymbolTable</tt> class</a>
</div>

<div class="doc_text">
<p>This class provides a symbol table that the <a
href="#Function"><tt>Function</tt></a> and <a href="#Module">
<tt>Module</tt></a> classes use for naming definitions. The symbol table can
provide a name for any <a href="#Value"><tt>Value</tt></a> or <a
href="#Type"><tt>Type</tt></a>.  <tt>SymbolTable</tt> is an abstract data
type. It hides the data it contains and provides access to it through a
controlled interface.</p>

<p>Note that the symbol table class is should not be directly accessed by most
clients.  It should only be used when iteration over the symbol table names
themselves are required, which is very special purpose.  Note that not all LLVM
<a href="#Value">Value</a>s have names, and those without names (i.e. they have
an empty name) do not exist in the symbol table.
</p>

<p>To use the <tt>SymbolTable</tt> well, you need to understand the 
structure of the information it holds. The class contains two 
<tt>std::map</tt> objects. The first, <tt>pmap</tt>, is a map of 
<tt>Type*</tt> to maps of name (<tt>std::string</tt>) to <tt>Value*</tt>. 
The second, <tt>tmap</tt>, is a map of names to <tt>Type*</tt>. Thus, Values
are stored in two-dimensions and accessed by <tt>Type</tt> and name. Types,
however, are stored in a single dimension and accessed only by name.</p>

<p>The interface of this class provides three basic types of operations:
<ol>
  <li><em>Accessors</em>. Accessors provide read-only access to information
  such as finding a value for a name with the 
  <a href="#SymbolTable_lookup">lookup</a> method.</li> 
  <li><em>Mutators</em>. Mutators allow the user to add information to the
  <tt>SymbolTable</tt> with methods like 
  <a href="#SymbolTable_insert"><tt>insert</tt></a>.</li>
  <li><em>Iterators</em>. Iterators allow the user to traverse the content
  of the symbol table in well defined ways, such as the method
  <a href="#SymbolTable_type_begin"><tt>type_begin</tt></a>.</li>
</ol>

<h3>Accessors</h3>
<dl>
  <dt><tt>Value* lookup(const Type* Ty, const std::string&amp; name) const</tt>:
  </dt>
  <dd>The <tt>lookup</tt> method searches the type plane given by the
  <tt>Ty</tt> parameter for a <tt>Value</tt> with the provided <tt>name</tt>.
  If a suitable <tt>Value</tt> is not found, null is returned.</dd>

  <dt><tt>Type* lookupType( const std::string&amp; name) const</tt>:</dt>
  <dd>The <tt>lookupType</tt> method searches through the types for a
  <tt>Type</tt> with the provided <tt>name</tt>. If a suitable <tt>Type</tt>
  is not found, null is returned.</dd>

  <dt><tt>bool hasTypes() const</tt>:</dt>
  <dd>This function returns true if an entry has been made into the type
  map.</dd>

  <dt><tt>bool isEmpty() const</tt>:</dt>
  <dd>This function returns true if both the value and types maps are
  empty</dd>
</dl>

<h3>Mutators</h3>
<dl>
  <dt><tt>void insert(Value *Val)</tt>:</dt>
  <dd>This method adds the provided value to the symbol table.  The Value must
  have both a name and a type which are extracted and used to place the value
  in the correct type plane under the value's name.</dd>

  <dt><tt>void insert(const std::string&amp; Name, Value *Val)</tt>:</dt>
  <dd> Inserts a constant or type into the symbol table with the specified
  name. There can be a many to one mapping between names and constants
  or types.</dd>

  <dt><tt>void insert(const std::string&amp; Name, Type *Typ)</tt>:</dt>
  <dd> Inserts a type into the symbol table with the specified name. There
  can be a many-to-one mapping between names and types. This method
  allows a type with an existing entry in the symbol table to get
  a new name.</dd>

  <dt><tt>void remove(Value* Val)</tt>:</dt>
 <dd> This method removes a named value from the symbol table. The
  type and name of the Value are extracted from \p N and used to
  lookup the Value in the correct type plane. If the Value is
  not in the symbol table, this method silently ignores the
  request.</dd>

  <dt><tt>void remove(Type* Typ)</tt>:</dt>
  <dd> This method removes a named type from the symbol table. The
  name of the type is extracted from \P T and used to look up
  the Type in the type map. If the Type is not in the symbol
  table, this method silently ignores the request.</dd>

  <dt><tt>Value* remove(const std::string&amp; Name, Value *Val)</tt>:</dt>
  <dd> Remove a constant or type with the specified name from the 
  symbol table.</dd>

  <dt><tt>Type* remove(const std::string&amp; Name, Type* T)</tt>:</dt>
  <dd> Remove a type with the specified name from the symbol table.
  Returns the removed Type.</dd>

  <dt><tt>Value *value_remove(const value_iterator&amp; It)</tt>:</dt>
  <dd> Removes a specific value from the symbol table. 
  Returns the removed value.</dd>

  <dt><tt>bool strip()</tt>:</dt>
  <dd> This method will strip the symbol table of its names leaving
  the type and values. </dd>

  <dt><tt>void clear()</tt>:</dt>
  <dd>Empty the symbol table completely.</dd>
</dl>

<h3>Iteration</h3>
<p>The following functions describe three types of iterators you can obtain
the beginning or end of the sequence for both const and non-const. It is
important to keep track of the different kinds of iterators. There are
three idioms worth pointing out:</p>
<table>
  <tr><th>Units</th><th>Iterator</th><th>Idiom</th></tr>
  <tr>
    <td align="left">Planes Of name/Value maps</td><td>PI</td>
    <td align="left"><pre><tt>
for (SymbolTable::plane_const_iterator PI = ST.plane_begin(),
     PE = ST.plane_end(); PI != PE; ++PI ) {
  PI-&gt;first // This is the Type* of the plane
  PI-&gt;second // This is the SymbolTable::ValueMap of name/Value pairs
    </tt></pre></td>
  </tr>
  <tr>
    <td align="left">All name/Type Pairs</td><td>TI</td>
    <td align="left"><pre><tt>
for (SymbolTable::type_const_iterator TI = ST.type_begin(),
     TE = ST.type_end(); TI != TE; ++TI )
  TI-&gt;first  // This is the name of the type
  TI-&gt;second // This is the Type* value associated with the name
    </tt></pre></td>
  </tr>
  <tr>
    <td align="left">name/Value pairs in a plane</td><td>VI</td>
    <td align="left"><pre><tt>
for (SymbolTable::value_const_iterator VI = ST.value_begin(SomeType),
     VE = ST.value_end(SomeType); VI != VE; ++VI )
  VI-&gt;first  // This is the name of the Value
  VI-&gt;second // This is the Value* value associated with the name
    </tt></pre></td>
  </tr>
</table>

<p>Using the recommended iterator names and idioms will help you avoid
making mistakes. Of particular note, make sure that whenever you use
value_begin(SomeType) that you always compare the resulting iterator
with value_end(SomeType) not value_end(SomeOtherType) or else you 
will loop infinitely.</p>

<dl>

  <dt><tt>plane_iterator plane_begin()</tt>:</dt>
  <dd>Get an iterator that starts at the beginning of the type planes.
  The iterator will iterate over the Type/ValueMap pairs in the
  type planes. </dd>

  <dt><tt>plane_const_iterator plane_begin() const</tt>:</dt>
  <dd>Get a const_iterator that starts at the beginning of the type 
  planes.  The iterator will iterate over the Type/ValueMap pairs 
  in the type planes. </dd>

  <dt><tt>plane_iterator plane_end()</tt>:</dt>
  <dd>Get an iterator at the end of the type planes. This serves as
  the marker for end of iteration over the type planes.</dd>

  <dt><tt>plane_const_iterator plane_end() const</tt>:</dt>
  <dd>Get a const_iterator at the end of the type planes. This serves as
  the marker for end of iteration over the type planes.</dd>

  <dt><tt>value_iterator value_begin(const Type *Typ)</tt>:</dt>
  <dd>Get an iterator that starts at the beginning of a type plane.
  The iterator will iterate over the name/value pairs in the type plane.
  Note: The type plane must already exist before using this.</dd>

  <dt><tt>value_const_iterator value_begin(const Type *Typ) const</tt>:</dt>
  <dd>Get a const_iterator that starts at the beginning of a type plane.
  The iterator will iterate over the name/value pairs in the type plane.
  Note: The type plane must already exist before using this.</dd>

  <dt><tt>value_iterator value_end(const Type *Typ)</tt>:</dt>
  <dd>Get an iterator to the end of a type plane. This serves as the marker
  for end of iteration of the type plane.
  Note: The type plane must already exist before using this.</dd>

  <dt><tt>value_const_iterator value_end(const Type *Typ) const</tt>:</dt>
  <dd>Get a const_iterator to the end of a type plane. This serves as the
  marker for end of iteration of the type plane.
  Note: the type plane must already exist before using this.</dd>

  <dt><tt>type_iterator type_begin()</tt>:</dt>
  <dd>Get an iterator to the start of the name/Type map.</dd>

  <dt><tt>type_const_iterator type_begin() cons</tt>:</dt>
  <dd> Get a const_iterator to the start of the name/Type map.</dd>

  <dt><tt>type_iterator type_end()</tt>:</dt>
  <dd>Get an iterator to the end of the name/Type map. This serves as the
  marker for end of iteration of the types.</dd>

  <dt><tt>type_const_iterator type_end() const</tt>:</dt>
  <dd>Get a const-iterator to the end of the name/Type map. This serves 
  as the marker for end of iteration of the types.</dd>

  <dt><tt>plane_const_iterator find(const Type* Typ ) const</tt>:</dt>
  <dd>This method returns a plane_const_iterator for iteration over
  the type planes starting at a specific plane, given by \p Ty.</dd>

  <dt><tt>plane_iterator find( const Type* Typ </tt>:</dt>
  <dd>This method returns a plane_iterator for iteration over the
  type planes starting at a specific plane, given by \p Ty.</dd>

</dl>
</div>



<!-- *********************************************************************** -->
<div class="doc_section">
  <a name="coreclasses">The Core LLVM Class Hierarchy Reference </a>
</div>
<!-- *********************************************************************** -->

<div class="doc_text">

<p>The Core LLVM classes are the primary means of representing the program
being inspected or transformed.  The core LLVM classes are defined in
header files in the <tt>include/llvm/</tt> directory, and implemented in
the <tt>lib/VMCore</tt> directory.</p>

</div>

<!-- ======================================================================= -->
<div class="doc_subsection">
  <a name="Value">The <tt>Value</tt> class</a>
</div>

<div>

<p><tt>#include "<a href="/doxygen/Value_8h-source.html">llvm/Value.h</a>"</tt>
<br> 
doxygen info: <a href="/doxygen/structllvm_1_1Value.html">Value Class</a></p>

<p>The <tt>Value</tt> class is the most important class in the LLVM Source
base.  It represents a typed value that may be used (among other things) as an
operand to an instruction.  There are many different types of <tt>Value</tt>s,
such as <a href="#Constant"><tt>Constant</tt></a>s,<a
href="#Argument"><tt>Argument</tt></a>s. Even <a
href="#Instruction"><tt>Instruction</tt></a>s and <a
href="#Function"><tt>Function</tt></a>s are <tt>Value</tt>s.</p>

<p>A particular <tt>Value</tt> may be used many times in the LLVM representation
for a program.  For example, an incoming argument to a function (represented
with an instance of the <a href="#Argument">Argument</a> class) is "used" by
every instruction in the function that references the argument.  To keep track
of this relationship, the <tt>Value</tt> class keeps a list of all of the <a
href="#User"><tt>User</tt></a>s that is using it (the <a
href="#User"><tt>User</tt></a> class is a base class for all nodes in the LLVM
graph that can refer to <tt>Value</tt>s).  This use list is how LLVM represents
def-use information in the program, and is accessible through the <tt>use_</tt>*
methods, shown below.</p>

<p>Because LLVM is a typed representation, every LLVM <tt>Value</tt> is typed,
and this <a href="#Type">Type</a> is available through the <tt>getType()</tt>
method. In addition, all LLVM values can be named.  The "name" of the
<tt>Value</tt> is a symbolic string printed in the LLVM code:</p>

  <pre>   %<b>foo</b> = add int 1, 2<br></pre>

<p><a name="#nameWarning">The name of this instruction is "foo".</a> <b>NOTE</b>
that the name of any value may be missing (an empty string), so names should
<b>ONLY</b> be used for debugging (making the source code easier to read,
debugging printouts), they should not be used to keep track of values or map
between them.  For this purpose, use a <tt>std::map</tt> of pointers to the
<tt>Value</tt> itself instead.</p>

<p>One important aspect of LLVM is that there is no distinction between an SSA
variable and the operation that produces it.  Because of this, any reference to
the value produced by an instruction (or the value available as an incoming
argument, for example) is represented as a direct pointer to the instance of
the class that
represents this value.  Although this may take some getting used to, it
simplifies the representation and makes it easier to manipulate.</p>

</div>

<!-- _______________________________________________________________________ -->
<div class="doc_subsubsection">
  <a name="m_Value">Important Public Members of the <tt>Value</tt> class</a>
</div>

<div class="doc_text">

<ul>
  <li><tt>Value::use_iterator</tt> - Typedef for iterator over the
use-list<br>
    <tt>Value::use_const_iterator</tt> - Typedef for const_iterator over
the use-list<br>
    <tt>unsigned use_size()</tt> - Returns the number of users of the
value.<br>
    <tt>bool use_empty()</tt> - Returns true if there are no users.<br>
    <tt>use_iterator use_begin()</tt> - Get an iterator to the start of
the use-list.<br>
    <tt>use_iterator use_end()</tt> - Get an iterator to the end of the
use-list.<br>
    <tt><a href="#User">User</a> *use_back()</tt> - Returns the last
element in the list.
    <p> These methods are the interface to access the def-use
information in LLVM.  As with all other iterators in LLVM, the naming
conventions follow the conventions defined by the <a href="#stl">STL</a>.</p>
  </li>
  <li><tt><a href="#Type">Type</a> *getType() const</tt>
    <p>This method returns the Type of the Value.</p>
  </li>
  <li><tt>bool hasName() const</tt><br>
    <tt>std::string getName() const</tt><br>
    <tt>void setName(const std::string &amp;Name)</tt>
    <p> This family of methods is used to access and assign a name to a <tt>Value</tt>,
be aware of the <a href="#nameWarning">precaution above</a>.</p>
  </li>
  <li><tt>void replaceAllUsesWith(Value *V)</tt>

    <p>This method traverses the use list of a <tt>Value</tt> changing all <a
    href="#User"><tt>User</tt>s</a> of the current value to refer to
    "<tt>V</tt>" instead.  For example, if you detect that an instruction always
    produces a constant value (for example through constant folding), you can
    replace all uses of the instruction with the constant like this:</p>

    <pre>  Inst-&gt;replaceAllUsesWith(ConstVal);<br></pre>
</ul>

</div>

<!-- ======================================================================= -->
<div class="doc_subsection">
  <a name="User">The <tt>User</tt> class</a>
</div>

<div class="doc_text">
  
<p>
<tt>#include "<a href="/doxygen/User_8h-source.html">llvm/User.h</a>"</tt><br>
doxygen info: <a href="/doxygen/classllvm_1_1User.html">User Class</a><br>
Superclass: <a href="#Value"><tt>Value</tt></a></p>

<p>The <tt>User</tt> class is the common base class of all LLVM nodes that may
refer to <a href="#Value"><tt>Value</tt></a>s.  It exposes a list of "Operands"
that are all of the <a href="#Value"><tt>Value</tt></a>s that the User is
referring to.  The <tt>User</tt> class itself is a subclass of
<tt>Value</tt>.</p>

<p>The operands of a <tt>User</tt> point directly to the LLVM <a
href="#Value"><tt>Value</tt></a> that it refers to.  Because LLVM uses Static
Single Assignment (SSA) form, there can only be one definition referred to,
allowing this direct connection.  This connection provides the use-def
information in LLVM.</p>

</div>

<!-- _______________________________________________________________________ -->
<div class="doc_subsubsection">
  <a name="m_User">Important Public Members of the <tt>User</tt> class</a>
</div>

<div class="doc_text">

<p>The <tt>User</tt> class exposes the operand list in two ways: through
an index access interface and through an iterator based interface.</p>

<ul>
  <li><tt>Value *getOperand(unsigned i)</tt><br>
    <tt>unsigned getNumOperands()</tt>
    <p> These two methods expose the operands of the <tt>User</tt> in a
convenient form for direct access.</p></li>

  <li><tt>User::op_iterator</tt> - Typedef for iterator over the operand
list<br>
    <tt>op_iterator op_begin()</tt> - Get an iterator to the start of 
the operand list.<br>
    <tt>op_iterator op_end()</tt> - Get an iterator to the end of the
operand list.
    <p> Together, these methods make up the iterator based interface to
the operands of a <tt>User</tt>.</p></li>
</ul>

</div>    

<!-- ======================================================================= -->
<div class="doc_subsection">
  <a name="Instruction">The <tt>Instruction</tt> class</a>
</div>

<div class="doc_text">

<p><tt>#include "</tt><tt><a
href="/doxygen/Instruction_8h-source.html">llvm/Instruction.h</a>"</tt><br>
doxygen info: <a href="/doxygen/classllvm_1_1Instruction.html">Instruction Class</a><br>
Superclasses: <a href="#User"><tt>User</tt></a>, <a
href="#Value"><tt>Value</tt></a></p>

<p>The <tt>Instruction</tt> class is the common base class for all LLVM
instructions.  It provides only a few methods, but is a very commonly used
class.  The primary data tracked by the <tt>Instruction</tt> class itself is the
opcode (instruction type) and the parent <a
href="#BasicBlock"><tt>BasicBlock</tt></a> the <tt>Instruction</tt> is embedded
into.  To represent a specific type of instruction, one of many subclasses of
<tt>Instruction</tt> are used.</p>

<p> Because the <tt>Instruction</tt> class subclasses the <a
href="#User"><tt>User</tt></a> class, its operands can be accessed in the same
way as for other <a href="#User"><tt>User</tt></a>s (with the
<tt>getOperand()</tt>/<tt>getNumOperands()</tt> and
<tt>op_begin()</tt>/<tt>op_end()</tt> methods).</p> <p> An important file for
the <tt>Instruction</tt> class is the <tt>llvm/Instruction.def</tt> file. This
file contains some meta-data about the various different types of instructions
in LLVM.  It describes the enum values that are used as opcodes (for example
<tt>Instruction::Add</tt> and <tt>Instruction::SetLE</tt>), as well as the
concrete sub-classes of <tt>Instruction</tt> that implement the instruction (for
example <tt><a href="#BinaryOperator">BinaryOperator</a></tt> and <tt><a
href="#SetCondInst">SetCondInst</a></tt>).  Unfortunately, the use of macros in
this file confuses doxygen, so these enum values don't show up correctly in the
<a href="/doxygen/classllvm_1_1Instruction.html">doxygen output</a>.</p>

</div>

<!-- _______________________________________________________________________ -->
<div class="doc_subsubsection">
  <a name="m_Instruction">Important Public Members of the <tt>Instruction</tt>
  class</a>
</div>

<div class="doc_text">

<ul>
  <li><tt><a href="#BasicBlock">BasicBlock</a> *getParent()</tt>
    <p>Returns the <a href="#BasicBlock"><tt>BasicBlock</tt></a> that
this  <tt>Instruction</tt> is embedded into.</p></li>
  <li><tt>bool mayWriteToMemory()</tt>
    <p>Returns true if the instruction writes to memory, i.e. it is a
      <tt>call</tt>,<tt>free</tt>,<tt>invoke</tt>, or <tt>store</tt>.</p></li>
  <li><tt>unsigned getOpcode()</tt>
    <p>Returns the opcode for the <tt>Instruction</tt>.</p></li>
  <li><tt><a href="#Instruction">Instruction</a> *clone() const</tt>
    <p>Returns another instance of the specified instruction, identical
in all ways to the original except that the instruction has no parent
(ie it's not embedded into a <a href="#BasicBlock"><tt>BasicBlock</tt></a>),
and it has no name</p></li>
</ul>

</div>

<!-- ======================================================================= -->
<div class="doc_subsection">
  <a name="BasicBlock">The <tt>BasicBlock</tt> class</a>
</div>

<div class="doc_text">

<p><tt>#include "<a
href="/doxygen/BasicBlock_8h-source.html">llvm/BasicBlock.h</a>"</tt><br>
doxygen info: <a href="/doxygen/structllvm_1_1BasicBlock.html">BasicBlock
Class</a><br>
Superclass: <a href="#Value"><tt>Value</tt></a></p>

<p>This class represents a single entry multiple exit section of the code,
commonly known as a basic block by the compiler community.  The
<tt>BasicBlock</tt> class maintains a list of <a
href="#Instruction"><tt>Instruction</tt></a>s, which form the body of the block.
Matching the language definition, the last element of this list of instructions
is always a terminator instruction (a subclass of the <a
href="#TerminatorInst"><tt>TerminatorInst</tt></a> class).</p>

<p>In addition to tracking the list of instructions that make up the block, the
<tt>BasicBlock</tt> class also keeps track of the <a
href="#Function"><tt>Function</tt></a> that it is embedded into.</p>

<p>Note that <tt>BasicBlock</tt>s themselves are <a
href="#Value"><tt>Value</tt></a>s, because they are referenced by instructions
like branches and can go in the switch tables. <tt>BasicBlock</tt>s have type
<tt>label</tt>.</p>

</div>

<!-- _______________________________________________________________________ -->
<div class="doc_subsubsection">
  <a name="m_BasicBlock">Important Public Members of the <tt>BasicBlock</tt>
  class</a>
</div>

<div class="doc_text">

<ul>

<li><tt>BasicBlock(const std::string &amp;Name = "", </tt><tt><a
 href="#Function">Function</a> *Parent = 0)</tt>

<p>The <tt>BasicBlock</tt> constructor is used to create new basic blocks for
insertion into a function.  The constructor optionally takes a name for the new
block, and a <a href="#Function"><tt>Function</tt></a> to insert it into.  If
the <tt>Parent</tt> parameter is specified, the new <tt>BasicBlock</tt> is
automatically inserted at the end of the specified <a
href="#Function"><tt>Function</tt></a>, if not specified, the BasicBlock must be
manually inserted into the <a href="#Function"><tt>Function</tt></a>.</p></li>

<li><tt>BasicBlock::iterator</tt> - Typedef for instruction list iterator<br>
<tt>BasicBlock::const_iterator</tt> - Typedef for const_iterator.<br>
<tt>begin()</tt>, <tt>end()</tt>, <tt>front()</tt>, <tt>back()</tt>,
<tt>size()</tt>, <tt>empty()</tt>
STL-style functions for accessing the instruction list.

<p>These methods and typedefs are forwarding functions that have the same
semantics as the standard library methods of the same names.  These methods
expose the underlying instruction list of a basic block in a way that is easy to
manipulate.  To get the full complement of container operations (including
operations to update the list), you must use the <tt>getInstList()</tt>
method.</p></li>

<li><tt>BasicBlock::InstListType &amp;getInstList()</tt>

<p>This method is used to get access to the underlying container that actually
holds the Instructions.  This method must be used when there isn't a forwarding
function in the <tt>BasicBlock</tt> class for the operation that you would like
to perform.  Because there are no forwarding functions for "updating"
operations, you need to use this if you want to update the contents of a
<tt>BasicBlock</tt>.</p></li>

<li><tt><a href="#Function">Function</a> *getParent()</tt>

<p> Returns a pointer to <a href="#Function"><tt>Function</tt></a> the block is
embedded into, or a null pointer if it is homeless.</p></li>

<li><tt><a href="#TerminatorInst">TerminatorInst</a> *getTerminator()</tt>

<p> Returns a pointer to the terminator instruction that appears at the end of
the <tt>BasicBlock</tt>.  If there is no terminator instruction, or if the last
instruction in the block is not a terminator, then a null pointer is
returned.</p></li>

</ul>

</div>

<!-- ======================================================================= -->
<div class="doc_subsection">
  <a name="GlobalValue">The <tt>GlobalValue</tt> class</a>
</div>

<div class="doc_text">

<p><tt>#include "<a
href="/doxygen/GlobalValue_8h-source.html">llvm/GlobalValue.h</a>"</tt><br>
doxygen info: <a href="/doxygen/classllvm_1_1GlobalValue.html">GlobalValue
Class</a><br>
Superclasses: <a href="#User"><tt>User</tt></a>, <a
href="#Value"><tt>Value</tt></a></p>

<p>Global values (<a href="#GlobalVariable"><tt>GlobalVariable</tt></a>s or <a
href="#Function"><tt>Function</tt></a>s) are the only LLVM values that are
visible in the bodies of all <a href="#Function"><tt>Function</tt></a>s.
Because they are visible at global scope, they are also subject to linking with
other globals defined in different translation units.  To control the linking
process, <tt>GlobalValue</tt>s know their linkage rules. Specifically,
<tt>GlobalValue</tt>s know whether they have internal or external linkage, as
defined by the <tt>LinkageTypes</tt> enumeration.</p>

<p>If a <tt>GlobalValue</tt> has internal linkage (equivalent to being
<tt>static</tt> in C), it is not visible to code outside the current translation
unit, and does not participate in linking.  If it has external linkage, it is
visible to external code, and does participate in linking.  In addition to
linkage information, <tt>GlobalValue</tt>s keep track of which <a
href="#Module"><tt>Module</tt></a> they are currently part of.</p>

<p>Because <tt>GlobalValue</tt>s are memory objects, they are always referred to
by their <b>address</b>. As such, the <a href="#Type"><tt>Type</tt></a> of a
global is always a pointer to its contents. It is important to remember this
when using the <tt>GetElementPtrInst</tt> instruction because this pointer must
be dereferenced first. For example, if you have a <tt>GlobalVariable</tt> (a
subclass of <tt>GlobalValue)</tt> that is an array of 24 ints, type <tt>[24 x
int]</tt>, then the <tt>GlobalVariable</tt> is a pointer to that array. Although
the address of the first element of this array and the value of the
<tt>GlobalVariable</tt> are the same, they have different types. The
<tt>GlobalVariable</tt>'s type is <tt>[24 x int]</tt>. The first element's type
is <tt>int.</tt> Because of this, accessing a global value requires you to
dereference the pointer with <tt>GetElementPtrInst</tt> first, then its elements
can be accessed. This is explained in the <a href="LangRef.html#globalvars">LLVM
Language Reference Manual</a>.</p>

</div>

<!-- _______________________________________________________________________ -->
<div class="doc_subsubsection">
  <a name="m_GlobalValue">Important Public Members of the <tt>GlobalValue</tt>
  class</a>
</div>

<div class="doc_text">

<ul>
  <li><tt>bool hasInternalLinkage() const</tt><br>
    <tt>bool hasExternalLinkage() const</tt><br>
    <tt>void setInternalLinkage(bool HasInternalLinkage)</tt>
    <p> These methods manipulate the linkage characteristics of the <tt>GlobalValue</tt>.</p>
    <p> </p>
  </li>
  <li><tt><a href="#Module">Module</a> *getParent()</tt>
    <p> This returns the <a href="#Module"><tt>Module</tt></a> that the
GlobalValue is currently embedded into.</p></li>
</ul>

</div>

<!-- ======================================================================= -->
<div class="doc_subsection">
  <a name="Function">The <tt>Function</tt> class</a>
</div>

<div class="doc_text">

<p><tt>#include "<a
href="/doxygen/Function_8h-source.html">llvm/Function.h</a>"</tt><br> doxygen
info: <a href="/doxygen/classllvm_1_1Function.html">Function Class</a><br>
Superclasses: <a href="#GlobalValue"><tt>GlobalValue</tt></a>, <a
href="#User"><tt>User</tt></a>, <a href="#Value"><tt>Value</tt></a></p>

<p>The <tt>Function</tt> class represents a single procedure in LLVM.  It is
actually one of the more complex classes in the LLVM heirarchy because it must
keep track of a large amount of data.  The <tt>Function</tt> class keeps track
of a list of <a href="#BasicBlock"><tt>BasicBlock</tt></a>s, a list of formal <a
href="#Argument"><tt>Argument</tt></a>s, and a <a
href="#SymbolTable"><tt>SymbolTable</tt></a>.</p>

<p>The list of <a href="#BasicBlock"><tt>BasicBlock</tt></a>s is the most
commonly used part of <tt>Function</tt> objects.  The list imposes an implicit
ordering of the blocks in the function, which indicate how the code will be
layed out by the backend.  Additionally, the first <a
href="#BasicBlock"><tt>BasicBlock</tt></a> is the implicit entry node for the
<tt>Function</tt>.  It is not legal in LLVM to explicitly branch to this initial
block.  There are no implicit exit nodes, and in fact there may be multiple exit
nodes from a single <tt>Function</tt>.  If the <a
href="#BasicBlock"><tt>BasicBlock</tt></a> list is empty, this indicates that
the <tt>Function</tt> is actually a function declaration: the actual body of the
function hasn't been linked in yet.</p>

<p>In addition to a list of <a href="#BasicBlock"><tt>BasicBlock</tt></a>s, the
<tt>Function</tt> class also keeps track of the list of formal <a
href="#Argument"><tt>Argument</tt></a>s that the function receives.  This
container manages the lifetime of the <a href="#Argument"><tt>Argument</tt></a>
nodes, just like the <a href="#BasicBlock"><tt>BasicBlock</tt></a> list does for
the <a href="#BasicBlock"><tt>BasicBlock</tt></a>s.</p>

<p>The <a href="#SymbolTable"><tt>SymbolTable</tt></a> is a very rarely used
LLVM feature that is only used when you have to look up a value by name.  Aside
from that, the <a href="#SymbolTable"><tt>SymbolTable</tt></a> is used
internally to make sure that there are not conflicts between the names of <a
href="#Instruction"><tt>Instruction</tt></a>s, <a
href="#BasicBlock"><tt>BasicBlock</tt></a>s, or <a
href="#Argument"><tt>Argument</tt></a>s in the function body.</p>

<p>Note that <tt>Function</tt> is a <a href="#GlobalValue">GlobalValue</a>
and therefore also a <a href="#Constant">Constant</a>. The value of the function
is its address (after linking) which is guaranteed to be constant.</p>
</div>

<!-- _______________________________________________________________________ -->
<div class="doc_subsubsection">
  <a name="m_Function">Important Public Members of the <tt>Function</tt>
  class</a>
</div>

<div class="doc_text">

<ul>
  <li><tt>Function(const </tt><tt><a href="#FunctionType">FunctionType</a>
  *Ty, LinkageTypes Linkage, const std::string &amp;N = "", Module* Parent = 0)</tt>

    <p>Constructor used when you need to create new <tt>Function</tt>s to add
    the the program.  The constructor must specify the type of the function to
    create and what type of linkage the function should have. The <a 
    href="#FunctionType"><tt>FunctionType</tt></a> argument
    specifies the formal arguments and return value for the function. The same
    <a href="#FunctionTypel"><tt>FunctionType</tt></a> value can be used to
    create multiple functions. The <tt>Parent</tt> argument specifies the Module
    in which the function is defined. If this argument is provided, the function
    will automatically be inserted into that module's list of
    functions.</p></li>

  <li><tt>bool isExternal()</tt>

    <p>Return whether or not the <tt>Function</tt> has a body defined.  If the
    function is "external", it does not have a body, and thus must be resolved
    by linking with a function defined in a different translation unit.</p></li>

  <li><tt>Function::iterator</tt> - Typedef for basic block list iterator<br>
    <tt>Function::const_iterator</tt> - Typedef for const_iterator.<br>

    <tt>begin()</tt>, <tt>end()</tt>
    <tt>size()</tt>, <tt>empty()</tt>

    <p>These are forwarding methods that make it easy to access the contents of
    a <tt>Function</tt> object's <a href="#BasicBlock"><tt>BasicBlock</tt></a>
    list.</p></li>

  <li><tt>Function::BasicBlockListType &amp;getBasicBlockList()</tt>

    <p>Returns the list of <a href="#BasicBlock"><tt>BasicBlock</tt></a>s.  This
    is necessary to use when you need to update the list or perform a complex
    action that doesn't have a forwarding method.</p></li>

  <li><tt>Function::arg_iterator</tt> - Typedef for the argument list
iterator<br>
    <tt>Function::const_arg_iterator</tt> - Typedef for const_iterator.<br>

    <tt>arg_begin()</tt>, <tt>arg_end()</tt>
    <tt>arg_size()</tt>, <tt>arg_empty()</tt>

    <p>These are forwarding methods that make it easy to access the contents of
    a <tt>Function</tt> object's <a href="#Argument"><tt>Argument</tt></a>
    list.</p></li>

  <li><tt>Function::ArgumentListType &amp;getArgumentList()</tt>

    <p>Returns the list of <a href="#Argument"><tt>Argument</tt></a>s.  This is
    necessary to use when you need to update the list or perform a complex
    action that doesn't have a forwarding method.</p></li>

  <li><tt><a href="#BasicBlock">BasicBlock</a> &amp;getEntryBlock()</tt>

    <p>Returns the entry <a href="#BasicBlock"><tt>BasicBlock</tt></a> for the
    function.  Because the entry block for the function is always the first
    block, this returns the first block of the <tt>Function</tt>.</p></li>

  <li><tt><a href="#Type">Type</a> *getReturnType()</tt><br>
    <tt><a href="#FunctionType">FunctionType</a> *getFunctionType()</tt>

    <p>This traverses the <a href="#Type"><tt>Type</tt></a> of the
    <tt>Function</tt> and returns the return type of the function, or the <a
    href="#FunctionType"><tt>FunctionType</tt></a> of the actual
    function.</p></li>

  <li><tt><a href="#SymbolTable">SymbolTable</a> *getSymbolTable()</tt>

    <p> Return a pointer to the <a href="#SymbolTable"><tt>SymbolTable</tt></a>
    for this <tt>Function</tt>.</p></li>
</ul>

</div>

<!-- ======================================================================= -->
<div class="doc_subsection">
  <a name="GlobalVariable">The <tt>GlobalVariable</tt> class</a>
</div>

<div class="doc_text">

<p><tt>#include "<a
href="/doxygen/GlobalVariable_8h-source.html">llvm/GlobalVariable.h</a>"</tt>
<br>
doxygen info: <a href="/doxygen/classllvm_1_1GlobalVariable.html">GlobalVariable
Class</a><br> Superclasses: <a href="#GlobalValue"><tt>GlobalValue</tt></a>, <a
href="#User"><tt>User</tt></a>, <a href="#Value"><tt>Value</tt></a></p>

<p>Global variables are represented with the (suprise suprise)
<tt>GlobalVariable</tt> class. Like functions, <tt>GlobalVariable</tt>s are also
subclasses of <a href="#GlobalValue"><tt>GlobalValue</tt></a>, and as such are
always referenced by their address (global values must live in memory, so their
"name" refers to their address). See <a
href="#GlobalValue"><tt>GlobalValue</tt></a> for more on this. Global variables
may have an initial value (which must be a <a
href="#Constant"><tt>Constant</tt></a>), and if they have an initializer, they
may be marked as "constant" themselves (indicating that their contents never
change at runtime).</p>

</div>

<!-- _______________________________________________________________________ -->
<div class="doc_subsubsection">
  <a name="m_GlobalVariable">Important Public Members of the
  <tt>GlobalVariable</tt> class</a>
</div>

<div class="doc_text">

<ul>
  <li><tt>GlobalVariable(const </tt><tt><a href="#Type">Type</a> *Ty, bool
  isConstant, LinkageTypes&amp; Linkage, <a href="#Constant">Constant</a>
  *Initializer = 0, const std::string &amp;Name = "", Module* Parent = 0)</tt>

    <p>Create a new global variable of the specified type. If
    <tt>isConstant</tt> is true then the global variable will be marked as
    unchanging for the program. The Linkage parameter specifies the type of
    linkage (internal, external, weak, linkonce, appending) for the variable. If
    the linkage is InternalLinkage, WeakLinkage, or LinkOnceLinkage,&nbsp; then
    the resultant global variable will have internal linkage.  AppendingLinkage
    concatenates together all instances (in different translation units) of the
    variable into a single variable but is only applicable to arrays.  &nbsp;See
    the <a href="LangRef.html#modulestructure">LLVM Language Reference</a> for
    further details on linkage types. Optionally an initializer, a name, and the
    module to put the variable into may be specified for the global variable as
    well.</p></li>

  <li><tt>bool isConstant() const</tt>

    <p>Returns true if this is a global variable that is known not to
    be modified at runtime.</p></li>

  <li><tt>bool hasInitializer()</tt>

    <p>Returns true if this <tt>GlobalVariable</tt> has an intializer.</p></li>

  <li><tt><a href="#Constant">Constant</a> *getInitializer()</tt>

    <p>Returns the intial value for a <tt>GlobalVariable</tt>.  It is not legal
    to call this method if there is no initializer.</p></li>
</ul>

</div>

<!-- ======================================================================= -->
<div class="doc_subsection">
  <a name="Module">The <tt>Module</tt> class</a>
</div>

<div class="doc_text">

<p><tt>#include "<a
href="/doxygen/Module_8h-source.html">llvm/Module.h</a>"</tt><br> doxygen info:
<a href="/doxygen/classllvm_1_1Module.html">Module Class</a></p>

<p>The <tt>Module</tt> class represents the top level structure present in LLVM
programs.  An LLVM module is effectively either a translation unit of the
original program or a combination of several translation units merged by the
linker.  The <tt>Module</tt> class keeps track of a list of <a
href="#Function"><tt>Function</tt></a>s, a list of <a
href="#GlobalVariable"><tt>GlobalVariable</tt></a>s, and a <a
href="#SymbolTable"><tt>SymbolTable</tt></a>.  Additionally, it contains a few
helpful member functions that try to make common operations easy.</p>

</div>

<!-- _______________________________________________________________________ -->
<div class="doc_subsubsection">
  <a name="m_Module">Important Public Members of the <tt>Module</tt> class</a>
</div>

<div class="doc_text">

<ul>
  <li><tt>Module::Module(std::string name = "")</tt></li>
</ul>

<p>Constructing a <a href="#Module">Module</a> is easy. You can optionally
provide a name for it (probably based on the name of the translation unit).</p>

<ul>
  <li><tt>Module::iterator</tt> - Typedef for function list iterator<br>
    <tt>Module::const_iterator</tt> - Typedef for const_iterator.<br>

    <tt>begin()</tt>, <tt>end()</tt>
    <tt>size()</tt>, <tt>empty()</tt>

    <p>These are forwarding methods that make it easy to access the contents of
    a <tt>Module</tt> object's <a href="#Function"><tt>Function</tt></a>
    list.</p></li>

  <li><tt>Module::FunctionListType &amp;getFunctionList()</tt>

    <p> Returns the list of <a href="#Function"><tt>Function</tt></a>s.  This is
    necessary to use when you need to update the list or perform a complex
    action that doesn't have a forwarding method.</p>

    <p><!--  Global Variable --></p></li> 
</ul>

<hr>

<ul>
  <li><tt>Module::global_iterator</tt> - Typedef for global variable list iterator<br>

    <tt>Module::const_global_iterator</tt> - Typedef for const_iterator.<br>

    <tt>global_begin()</tt>, <tt>global_end()</tt>
    <tt>global_size()</tt>, <tt>global_empty()</tt>

    <p> These are forwarding methods that make it easy to access the contents of
    a <tt>Module</tt> object's <a
    href="#GlobalVariable"><tt>GlobalVariable</tt></a> list.</p></li>

  <li><tt>Module::GlobalListType &amp;getGlobalList()</tt>

    <p>Returns the list of <a
    href="#GlobalVariable"><tt>GlobalVariable</tt></a>s.  This is necessary to
    use when you need to update the list or perform a complex action that
    doesn't have a forwarding method.</p>

    <p><!--  Symbol table stuff --> </p></li>
</ul>

<hr>

<ul>
  <li><tt><a href="#SymbolTable">SymbolTable</a> *getSymbolTable()</tt>

    <p>Return a reference to the <a href="#SymbolTable"><tt>SymbolTable</tt></a>
    for this <tt>Module</tt>.</p>

    <p><!--  Convenience methods --></p></li>
</ul>

<hr>

<ul>
  <li><tt><a href="#Function">Function</a> *getFunction(const std::string
  &amp;Name, const <a href="#FunctionType">FunctionType</a> *Ty)</tt>

    <p>Look up the specified function in the <tt>Module</tt> <a
    href="#SymbolTable"><tt>SymbolTable</tt></a>. If it does not exist, return
    <tt>null</tt>.</p></li>

  <li><tt><a href="#Function">Function</a> *getOrInsertFunction(const
  std::string &amp;Name, const <a href="#FunctionType">FunctionType</a> *T)</tt>

    <p>Look up the specified function in the <tt>Module</tt> <a
    href="#SymbolTable"><tt>SymbolTable</tt></a>. If it does not exist, add an
    external declaration for the function and return it.</p></li>

  <li><tt>std::string getTypeName(const <a href="#Type">Type</a> *Ty)</tt>

    <p>If there is at least one entry in the <a
    href="#SymbolTable"><tt>SymbolTable</tt></a> for the specified <a
    href="#Type"><tt>Type</tt></a>, return it.  Otherwise return the empty
    string.</p></li>

  <li><tt>bool addTypeName(const std::string &amp;Name, const <a
  href="#Type">Type</a> *Ty)</tt>

    <p>Insert an entry in the <a href="#SymbolTable"><tt>SymbolTable</tt></a>
    mapping <tt>Name</tt> to <tt>Ty</tt>. If there is already an entry for this
    name, true is returned and the <a
    href="#SymbolTable"><tt>SymbolTable</tt></a> is not modified.</p></li>
</ul>

</div>

<!-- ======================================================================= -->
<div class="doc_subsection">
  <a name="Constant">The <tt>Constant</tt> class and subclasses</a>
</div>

<div class="doc_text">

<p>Constant represents a base class for different types of constants. It
is subclassed by ConstantBool, ConstantInt, ConstantSInt, ConstantUInt,
ConstantArray etc for representing the various types of Constants.</p>

</div>

<!-- _______________________________________________________________________ -->
<div class="doc_subsubsection">
  <a name="m_Constant">Important Public Methods</a>
</div>
<div class="doc_text">
</div>

<!-- _______________________________________________________________________ -->
<div class="doc_subsubsection">Important Subclasses of Constant </div>
<div class="doc_text">
<ul>
  <li>ConstantSInt : This subclass of Constant represents a signed integer 
  constant.
    <ul>
      <li><tt>int64_t getValue() const</tt>: Returns the underlying value of
      this constant. </li>
    </ul>
  </li>
  <li>ConstantUInt : This class represents an unsigned integer.
    <ul>
      <li><tt>uint64_t getValue() const</tt>: Returns the underlying value of 
      this constant. </li>
    </ul>
  </li>
  <li>ConstantFP : This class represents a floating point constant.
    <ul>
      <li><tt>double getValue() const</tt>: Returns the underlying value of 
      this constant. </li>
    </ul>
  </li>
  <li>ConstantBool : This represents a boolean constant.
    <ul>
      <li><tt>bool getValue() const</tt>: Returns the underlying value of this 
      constant. </li>
    </ul>
  </li>
  <li>ConstantArray : This represents a constant array.
    <ul>
      <li><tt>const std::vector&lt;Use&gt; &amp;getValues() const</tt>: Returns 
      a vector of component constants that makeup this array. </li>
    </ul>
  </li>
  <li>ConstantStruct : This represents a constant struct.
    <ul>
      <li><tt>const std::vector&lt;Use&gt; &amp;getValues() const</tt>: Returns 
      a vector of component constants that makeup this array. </li>
    </ul>
  </li>
  <li>GlobalValue : This represents either a global variable or a function. In 
  either case, the value is a constant fixed address (after linking). 
  </li>
</ul>
</div>

<!-- ======================================================================= -->
<div class="doc_subsection">
  <a name="Type">The <tt>Type</tt> class and Derived Types</a>
</div>

<div class="doc_text">

<p>Type as noted earlier is also a subclass of a Value class.  Any primitive
type (like int, short etc) in LLVM is an instance of Type Class.  All other
types are instances of subclasses of type like FunctionType, ArrayType
etc. DerivedType is the interface for all such dervied types including
FunctionType, ArrayType, PointerType, StructType. Types can have names. They can
be recursive (StructType).  There exists exactly one instance of any type
structure at a time. This allows using pointer equality of Type *s for comparing
types.</p>

</div>

<!-- _______________________________________________________________________ -->
<div class="doc_subsubsection">
  <a name="m_Value">Important Public Methods</a>
</div>

<div class="doc_text">

<ul>

  <li><tt>bool isSigned() const</tt>: Returns whether an integral numeric type
  is signed. This is true for SByteTy, ShortTy, IntTy, LongTy. Note that this is
  not true for Float and Double. </li>

  <li><tt>bool isUnsigned() const</tt>: Returns whether a numeric type is
  unsigned. This is not quite the complement of isSigned... nonnumeric types
  return false as they do with isSigned. This returns true for UByteTy,
  UShortTy, UIntTy, and ULongTy. </li>

  <li><tt>bool isInteger() const</tt>: Equivalent to isSigned() || isUnsigned().</li>

  <li><tt>bool isIntegral() const</tt>: Returns true if this is an integral
  type, which is either Bool type or one of the Integer types.</li>

  <li><tt>bool isFloatingPoint()</tt>: Return true if this is one of the two
  floating point types.</li>

  <li><tt>isLosslesslyConvertableTo (const Type *Ty) const</tt>: Return true if
  this type can be converted to 'Ty' without any reinterpretation of bits. For
  example, uint to int or one pointer type to another.</li>
</ul>
</div>

<!-- _______________________________________________________________________ -->
<div class="doc_subsubsection">
  <a name="m_Value">Important Derived Types</a>
</div>
<div class="doc_text">
<ul>
  <li>SequentialType : This is subclassed by ArrayType and PointerType
    <ul>
      <li><tt>const Type * getElementType() const</tt>: Returns the type of each
      of the elements in the sequential type. </li>
    </ul>
  </li>
  <li>ArrayType : This is a subclass of SequentialType and defines interface for
  array types.
    <ul>
      <li><tt>unsigned getNumElements() const</tt>: Returns the number of 
      elements in the array. </li>
    </ul>
  </li>
  <li>PointerType : Subclass of SequentialType for  pointer types. </li>
  <li>StructType : subclass of DerivedTypes for struct types </li>
  <li>FunctionType : subclass of DerivedTypes for function types.
    <ul>
      <li><tt>bool isVarArg() const</tt>: Returns true if its a vararg
      function</li>
      <li><tt> const Type * getReturnType() const</tt>: Returns the
      return type of the function.</li>
      <li><tt>const Type * getParamType (unsigned i)</tt>: Returns
      the type of the ith parameter.</li>
      <li><tt> const unsigned getNumParams() const</tt>: Returns the
      number of formal parameters.</li>
    </ul>
  </li>
</ul>
</div>

<!-- ======================================================================= -->
<div class="doc_subsection">
  <a name="Argument">The <tt>Argument</tt> class</a>
</div>

<div class="doc_text">

<p>This subclass of Value defines the interface for incoming formal
arguments to a function. A Function maintains a list of its formal
arguments. An argument has a pointer to the parent Function.</p>

</div>

<!-- *********************************************************************** -->
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