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<!DOCTYPE HTML PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD HTML 4.01//EN"
                      "http://www.w3.org/TR/html4/strict.dtd">
<html>
<head>
  <meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=utf-8">
  <title>Getting Started with LLVM System</title>
  <link rel="stylesheet" href="llvm.css" type="text/css">
</head>
<body>

<div class="doc_title">
  Getting Started with the LLVM System  
</div>

<ul>
  <li><a href="#overview">Overview</a>
  <li><a href="#quickstart">Getting Started Quickly (A Summary)</a>
  <li><a href="#requirements">Requirements</a>
    <ol>
      <li><a href="#hardware">Hardware</a>
      <li><a href="#software">Software</a>
      <li><a href="#brokengcc">Broken versions of GCC</a>
    </ol></li>

  <li><a href="#starting">Getting Started with LLVM</a>
    <ol>
      <li><a href="#terminology">Terminology and Notation</a>
      <li><a href="#environment">Setting Up Your Environment</a>
      <li><a href="#unpack">Unpacking the LLVM Archives</a>
      <li><a href="#checkout">Checkout LLVM from CVS</a>
      <li><a href="#installcf">Install the GCC Front End</a>
      <li><a href="#config">Local LLVM Configuration</a>
      <li><a href="#compile">Compiling the LLVM Suite Source Code</a>
      <li><a href="#objfiles">The Location of LLVM Object Files</a>
      <li><a href="#optionalconfig">Optional Configuration Items</a>
    </ol></li>

  <li><a href="#layout">Program layout</a>
    <ol>
      <li><a href="#cvsdir"><tt>CVS</tt> directories</a>
      <li><a href="#examples"><tt>llvm/examples</tt></a>
      <li><a href="#include"><tt>llvm/include</tt></a>
      <li><a href="#lib"><tt>llvm/lib</tt></a>
      <li><a href="#projects"><tt>llvm/projects</tt></a>
      <li><a href="#runtime"><tt>llvm/runtime</tt></a>  
      <li><a href="#test"><tt>llvm/test</tt></a>
      <li><a href="#llvmtest"><tt>llvm-test</tt></a>
      <li><a href="#tools"><tt>llvm/tools</tt></a>  
      <li><a href="#utils"><tt>llvm/utils</tt></a>
      <li><a href="#win32"><tt>llvm/win32</tt></a>
    </ol></li>

  <li><a href="#tutorial">An Example Using the LLVM Tool Chain</a>
  <li><a href="#problems">Common Problems</a>
  <li><a href="#links">Links</a>
</ul>

<div class="doc_author">
  <p>Written by: 
    <a href="mailto:criswell@uiuc.edu">John Criswell</a>, 
    <a href="mailto:sabre@nondot.org">Chris Lattner</a>,
    <a href="http://misha.brukman.net">Misha Brukman</a>, 
    <a href="http://www.cs.uiuc.edu/~vadve">Vikram Adve</a>, and
    <a href="mailto:gshi1@uiuc.edu">Guochun Shi</a>.
  </p>
</div>


<!-- *********************************************************************** -->
<div class="doc_section">
  <a name="overview"><b>Overview</b></a>
</div>
<!-- *********************************************************************** -->

<div class="doc_text">

<p>Welcome to LLVM! In order to get started, you first need to know some
basic information.</p>

<p>First, LLVM comes in two pieces. The first piece is the LLVM suite. This
contains all of the tools, libraries, and header files needed to use the low
level virtual machine.  It contains an assembler, disassembler, bytecode
analyzer, and bytecode optimizer.  It also contains a test suite that can be
used to test the LLVM tools and the GCC front end.</p>

<p>The second piece is the GCC front end.  This component provides a version of
GCC that compiles C and C++ code into LLVM bytecode.  Currently, the GCC front
end is a modified version of GCC 3.4 (we track the GCC 3.4 development).  Once
compiled into LLVM bytecode, a program can be manipulated with the LLVM tools
from the LLVM suite.</p>

<p>
There is a third, optional piece called llvm-test.  It is a suite of programs
with a testing harness that can be used to further test LLVM's functionality
and performance.
</p>

</div>

<!-- *********************************************************************** -->
<div class="doc_section">
  <a name="quickstart"><b>Getting Started Quickly (A Summary)</b></a>
</div>
<!-- *********************************************************************** -->

<div class="doc_text">

<p>Here's the short story for getting up and running quickly with LLVM:</p>

<ol>
  <li>Read the documentation.</li>
  <li>Read the documentation.</li>
  <li>Remember that you were warned twice about reading the documentation.</li>
  <li>Install the GCC front end if you intend to compile C or C++:
    <ol>
      <li><tt>cd <i>where-you-want-the-C-front-end-to-live</i></tt></li>
      <li><tt>gunzip --stdout cfrontend.<i>platform</i>.tar.gz | tar -xvf -</tt>
      </li>
      <li><tt>cd cfrontend/<i>platform</i><br>
        ./fixheaders</tt></li>
      <li>Add the cfrontend's "bin" directory to your PATH variable.</li>
    </ol></li>

  <li>Get the LLVM Source Code
  <ul>
    <li>With the distributed files (or use <a href="#checkout">CVS</a>):
    <ol>
      <li><tt>cd <i>where-you-want-llvm-to-live</i></tt>
      <li><tt>gunzip --stdout llvm-<i>version</i>.tar.gz | tar -xvf -</tt>
    </ol></li>

  </ul></li>

  <li><b>[Optional]</b> Get the Test Suite Source Code 
  <ul>
    <li>With the distributed files (or use <a href="#checkout">CVS</a>):
    <ol>
      <li><tt>cd <i>where-you-want-llvm-to-live</i></tt>
      <li><tt>cd llvm/projects</tt>
      <li><tt>gunzip --stdout llvm-test-<i>version</i>.tar.gz | tar -xvf -</tt>
    </ol></li>

  </ul></li>


  <li>Configure the LLVM Build Environment
  <ol>
    <li><tt>cd <i>where-you-want-to-build-llvm</i></tt></li>
    <li><tt><i>/path/to/llvm/</i>configure [options]</tt><br>
    Some common options:

      <ul>
        <li><tt>--prefix=<i>directory</i></tt>
        <p>Specify for <i>directory</i> the full pathname of where you
        want the LLVM tools and libraries to be installed (default
        <tt>/usr/local</tt>).</p></li>
        <li><tt>--with-llvmgccdir=<i>directory</i></tt>
        <p>Optionally, specify for <i>directory</i> the full pathname of the 
        C/C++ front end installation to use with this LLVM configuration. If
        not specified, the PATH will be searched.</p></li>
        <li><tt>--enable-spec2000=<i>directory</i></tt>
            <p>Enable the SPEC2000 benchmarks for testing.  The SPEC2000
            benchmarks should be available in
            <tt><i>directory</i></tt>.</p></li>
      </ul>
  </ol></li>

  <li>Build the LLVM Suite:
  <ol>
      <li><tt>gmake -k |&amp; tee gnumake.out
      &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;# this is csh or tcsh syntax</tt></li>
      <li>If you get an "internal compiler error (ICE)" see <a href="#brokengcc">below</a>.</li>
  </ol>

</ol>

<p>Consult the <a href="#starting">Getting Started with LLVM</a> section for
detailed information on configuring and compiling LLVM.  See <a
href="#environment">Setting Up Your Environment</a> for tips that simplify
working with the GCC front end and LLVM tools.  Go to <a href="#layout">Program
Layout</a> to learn about the layout of the source code tree.</p>

</div>

<!-- *********************************************************************** -->
<div class="doc_section">
  <a name="requirements"><b>Requirements</b></a>
</div>
<!-- *********************************************************************** -->

<div class="doc_text">

<p>Before you begin to use the LLVM system, review the requirements given below.
This may save you some trouble by knowing ahead of time what hardware and
software you will need.</p>

</div>

<!-- ======================================================================= -->
<div class="doc_subsection">
  <a name="hardware"><b>Hardware</b></a>
</div>

<div class="doc_text">

<p>LLVM is known to work on the following platforms:</p>

<table cellpadding="3">
<tr>
  <th>OS</th>
  <th>Arch</th>
  <th>Compilers</th>
</tr>
<tr>
  <td>Linux</td>
  <td>x86<sup><a href="#pf_1">1</a></sup></td>
  <td>GCC</td>
</tr>
<tr>
  <td>Solaris</td>
  <td>V9 (Ultrasparc)</td>
  <td>GCC</td>
</tr>
<tr>
  <td>FreeBSD</td>
  <td>x86<sup><a href="#pf_1">1</a></sup></td>
  <td>GCC</td>
</tr>
<tr>
  <td>MacOS X<sup><a href="#pf_2">2</a></sup></td>
  <td>PowerPC</td>
  <td>GCC</td>
</tr>
<tr>
  <td>Cygwin/Win32</td>
  <td>x86<sup><a href="#pf_1">1</a></sup></td>
  <td>GCC 3.4.X, binutils 2.15</td>
</tr>
<tr>
  <td>MinGW/Win32</td>
  <td>x86<sup><a href="#pf_1">1</a>,<a href="#pf_6">6</a></sup></td>
  <td>GCC 3.4.X, binutils 2.15</td>
</tr>
<tr>
  <td>Linux</td>
  <td>amd64<sup><a href="#pf_3">3</a></sup></td>
  <td>GCC</td>
</tr>
</table>

<p>LLVM has partial support for the following platforms:</p>

<table>
<tr>
  <th>OS</th>
  <th>Arch</th>
  <th>Compilers</th>
</tr>
<tr>
  <td>Windows</td>
  <td>x86<sup><a href="#pf_1">1</a></sup></td>
  <td>Visual Studio .NET<sup><a href="#pf_4">4</a>,<a href="#pf_5">5</a></sup></td>
<tr>
  <td>AIX<sup><a href="#pf_3">3</a>,<a href="#pf_4">4</a></sup></td>
  <td>PowerPC</td>
  <td>GCC</td>
</tr>
<tr>
  <td>Linux<sup><a href="#pf_3">3</a>,<a href="#pf_5">5</a></sup></td>
  <td>PowerPC</td>
  <td>GCC</td>
</tr>

<tr>
  <td>Linux<sup><a href="#pf_7">7</a></sup></td>
  <td>Alpha</td>
  <td>GCC</td>
</tr>
<tr>
  <td>Linux<sup><a href="#pf_7">7</a></sup></td>
  <td>Itanium (IA-64)</td>
  <td>GCC</td>
</tr>
<tr>
  <td>HP-UX<sup><a href="#pf_7">7</a></sup></td>
  <td>Itanium (IA-64)</td>
  <td>HP aCC</td>
</tr>
</table>

<p><b>Notes:</b></p>

<div class="doc_notes">
<ol>
<li><a name="pf_1">Code generation supported for Pentium processors and
up</a></li>
<li><a name="pf_2">Code generation supported for 32-bit ABI only</a></li>
<li><a name="pf_3">No native code generation</a></li>
<li><a name="pf_4">Build is not complete: one or more tools don't link</a></li>
<li><a name="pf_5">The GCC-based C/C++ frontend does not build</a></li>
<li><a name="pf_6">The port is done using the MSYS shell. 
<a href="http://www.mingw.org/MinGWiki/">Download</a> and install 
bison (excl. M4.exe) and flex in that order.  Build binutils-2.15 from source,
if necessary.</li>
<li><a name="pf_7">Native code generation exists but is not complete.</a></li>
</ol>
</div>

<p>Note that you will need about 1-3 GB of space for a full LLVM build in Debug
mode, depending on the system (it is so large because of all the debugging
information and the fact that the libraries are statically linked into multiple
tools).  If you do not need many of the tools and you are space-conscious,
you can disable them individually in <tt>llvm/tools/Makefile</tt>.  The Release
build requires considerably less space.</p>

<p>The LLVM suite <i>may</i> compile on other platforms, but it is not
guaranteed to do so.  If compilation is successful, the LLVM utilities should be
able to assemble, disassemble, analyze, and optimize LLVM bytecode.  Code
generation should work as well, although the generated native code may not work
on your platform.</p>

<p>The GCC front end is not very portable at the moment.  If you want to get it
to work on another platform, you can download a copy of the source and <a
href="CFEBuildInstrs.html">try to compile it</a> on your platform.</p>

</div>

<!-- ======================================================================= -->
<div class="doc_subsection"><a name="software"><b>Software</b></a></div>
<div class="doc_text">
  <p>Compiling LLVM requires that you have several software packages 
  installed. The table below lists those required packages. The Package column
  is the usual name for the software package that LLVM depends on. The Version
  column provides "known to work" versions of the package. The Notes column
  describes how LLVM uses the package and provides other details.</p>
  <table>
    <tr><th>Package</th><th>Version</th><th>Notes</th></tr>

    <tr>
      <td><a href="http://savannah.gnu.org/projects/make">GNU Make</a></td>
      <td>3.79, 3.79.1</td>
      <td>Makefile/build processor</td>
    </tr>

    <tr>
      <td><a href="http://gcc.gnu.org">GCC</a></td>
      <td>3.4.2</td>
      <td>C/C++ compiler<sup><a href="#sf1">1</a></sup></td>
    </tr>

    <tr>
      <td><a href="http://www.gnu.org/software/texinfo">TeXinfo</a></td>
      <td>4.5</td>
      <td>For building the CFE</td>
    </tr>

    <tr>
      <td><a href="http://www.gnu.org/software/flex">Flex</a></td>
      <td>2.5.4</td>
      <td>LEX compiler</td>
    </tr>

    <tr>
      <td><a href="http://www.gnu.org/software/bison/bison.html">Bison</a></td>
      <td>1.35</td>
      <td>YACC compiler</td>
    </tr>

    <tr>
      <td><a href="https://www.cvshome.org/downloads.html">CVS</a></td>
      <td>&ge;1.11</td>
      <td>CVS access to LLVM<sup><a href="#sf2">2</a></sup></td>
    </tr>

    <tr>
      <td><a href="http://savannah.gnu.org/projects/dejagnu">DejaGnu</a></td>
      <td>1.4.2</td>
      <td>Automated test suite<sup><a href="#sf3">3</a></sup></td>
    </tr>

    <tr>
      <td><a href="http://www.tcl.tk/software/tcltk/">tcl</a></td>
      <td>8.3, 8.4</td>
      <td>Automated test suite<sup><a href="#sf3">3</a></sup></td>
    </tr>

    <tr>
      <td><a href="http://expect.nist.gov/">expect</a></td>
      <td>5.38.0</td>
      <td>Automated test suite<sup><a href="#sf3">3</a></sup></td>
    </tr>

    <tr>
      <td><a href="http://www.perl.com/download.csp">perl</a></td>
      <td>&ge;5.6.0</td>
      <td>Nightly tester, utilities</td>
    </tr>

    <tr>
      <td><a href="http://savannah.gnu.org/projects/m4">GNU M4</a>
      <td>1.4</td>
      <td>Macro processor for configuration<sup><a href="#sf4">4</a></sup></td>
    </tr>

    <tr>
      <td><a href="http://www.gnu.org/software/autoconf">GNU Autoconf</a></td>
      <td>2.59</td>
      <td>Configuration script builder<sup><a href="#sf4">4</a></sup></td>
    </tr>

    <tr>
      <td><a href="http://www.gnu.org/software/automake">GNU Automake</a></td>
      <td>1.9.2</td>
      <td>aclocal macro generator<sup><a href="#sf4">4</a></sup></td>
    </tr>

    <tr>
      <td><a href="http://savannah.gnu.org/projects/libtool">libtool</a></td>
      <td>1.5.10</td>
      <td>Shared library manager<sup><a href="#sf4">4</a></sup></td>
    </tr>

  </table>

  <p><b>Notes:</b></p>
  <div class="doc_notes">
  <ol>
    <li><a name="sf3">Only the C and C++ languages are needed so there's no
      need to build the other languages for LLVM's purposes.</a> See 
      <a href="#brokengcc">below</a> for specific version info.</li>
    <li><a name="sf2">You only need CVS if you intend to build from the 
      latest LLVM sources. If you're working from a release distribution, you
      don't need CVS.</a></li>
    <li><a name="sf3">Only needed if you want to run the automated test 
      suite in the <tt>llvm/test</tt> directory.</a></li>
    <li><a name="sf4">If you want to make changes to the configure scripts, 
      you will need GNU autoconf (2.59), and consequently, GNU M4 (version 1.4 
      or higher). You will also need automake (1.9.2). We only use aclocal 
      from that package.</a></li>
  </ol>
  </div>
  
  <p>Additionally, your compilation host is expected to have the usual 
  plethora of Unix utilities. Specifically:</p>
  <ul>
    <li><b>ar</b> - archive library builder</li>
    <li><b>bzip2*</b> - bzip2 command for distribution generation</li>
    <li><b>bunzip2*</b> - bunzip2 command for distribution checking</li>
    <li><b>chmod</b> - change permissions on a file</li>
    <li><b>cat</b> - output concatenation utility</li>
    <li><b>cp</b> - copy files</li>
    <li><b>date</b> - print the current date/time </li>
    <li><b>echo</b> - print to standard output</li>
    <li><b>egrep</b> - extended regular expression search utility</li>
    <li><b>etags</b> - C/C++ tag file creator for vim/emacs</li>
    <li><b>find</b> - find files/dirs in a file system</li>
    <li><b>grep</b> - regular expression search utility</li>
    <li><b>gzip*</b> - gzip command for distribution generation</li>
    <li><b>gunzip*</b> - gunzip command for distribution checking</li>
    <li><b>install</b> - install directories/files </li>
    <li><b>mkdir</b> - create a directory</li>
    <li><b>mv</b> - move (rename) files</li>
    <li><b>ranlib</b> - symbol table builder for archive libraries</li>
    <li><b>rm</b> - remove (delete) files and directories</li>
    <li><b>sed</b> - stream editor for transforming output</li>
    <li><b>sh</b> - Bourne shell for make build scripts</li>
    <li><b>tar</b> - tape archive for distribution generation</li>
    <li><b>test</b> - test things in file system</li>
    <li><b>unzip*</b> - unzip command for distribution checking</li>
    <li><b>zip*</b> - zip command for distribution generation</li>
  </ul>
</div>

<!-- ======================================================================= -->
<div class="doc_subsection">
  <a name="brokengcc">Broken versions of GCC</a>
</div>

<div class="doc_text">

<p>LLVM is very demanding of the host C++ compiler, and as such tends to expose
bugs in the compiler.  In particular, several versions of GCC crash when trying
to compile LLVM.  We routinely use GCC 3.3.3 and GCC 3.4.0 and have had success
with them (however, see below).  Other versions of GCC will probably
work as well.  GCC versions listed
here are known to not work.  If you are using one of these versions, please try
to upgrade your GCC to something more recent.  If you run into a problem with a
version of GCC not listed here, please <a href="mailto:llvmdev@cs.uiuc.edu">let
us know</a>.  Please use the "<tt>gcc -v</tt>" command to find out which version
of GCC you are using.
</p>

<p><b>GCC versions prior to 3.0</b>: GCC 2.96.x and before had several
problems in the STL that effectively prevent it from compiling LLVM.
</p>

<p><b>GCC 3.2.2</b>: This version of GCC fails to compile LLVM.</p>

<p><b>GCC 3.3.2</b>: This version of GCC suffered from a <a 
href="http://gcc.gnu.org/PR13392">serious bug</a> which causes it to crash in
the "<tt>convert_from_eh_region_ranges_1</tt>" GCC function.</p>

<p><b>Cygwin GCC 3.3.3</b>: The version of GCC 3.3.3 commonly shipped with 
   Cygwin does not work.  Please <a href="CFEBuildInstrs.html#cygwin">upgrade 
   to a newer version</a> if possible.</p>
<p><b>SuSE GCC 3.3.3</b>: The version of GCC 3.3.3 shipped with SuSE 9.1 (and 
   possibly others) does not compile LLVM correctly (it appears that exception 
   handling is broken in some cases).  Please download the FSF 3.3.3 or upgrade
   to a newer version of GCC.</p>
<p><b>IA-64 GCC 4.0.0</b>: The IA-64 version of GCC 4.0.0 is known to
   miscompile LLVM.</p>
</div>



<!-- *********************************************************************** -->
<div class="doc_section">
  <a name="starting"><b>Getting Started with LLVM</b></a>
</div>
<!-- *********************************************************************** -->

<div class="doc_text">

<p>The remainder of this guide is meant to get you up and running with
LLVM and to give you some basic information about the LLVM environment.</p>

<p>The later sections of this guide describe the <a
href="#layout">general layout</a> of the the LLVM source tree, a <a
href="#tutorial">simple example</a> using the LLVM tool chain, and <a
href="#links">links</a> to find more information about LLVM or to get
help via e-mail.</p>
</div>

<!-- ======================================================================= -->
<div class="doc_subsection">
  <a name="terminology">Terminology and Notation</a>
</div>

<div class="doc_text">

<p>Throughout this manual, the following names are used to denote paths
specific to the local system and working environment.  <i>These are not
environment variables you need to set but just strings used in the rest
of this document below</i>.  In any of the examples below, simply replace
each of these names with the appropriate pathname on your local system.
All these paths are absolute:</p>

<dl>
    <dt>SRC_ROOT
    <dd>
    This is the top level directory of the LLVM source tree.
    <p>

    <dt>OBJ_ROOT
    <dd>
    This is the top level directory of the LLVM object tree (i.e. the
    tree where object files and compiled programs will be placed.  It
    can be the same as SRC_ROOT).
    <p>

    <dt>LLVMGCCDIR
    <dd>
    This is where the LLVM GCC Front End is installed.
    <p>
    For the pre-built GCC front end binaries, the LLVMGCCDIR is
    <tt>cfrontend/<i>platform</i>/llvm-gcc</tt>.
</dl>

</div>

<!-- ======================================================================= -->
<div class="doc_subsection">
  <a name="environment">Setting Up Your Environment</a>
</div>

<div class="doc_text">

<p>
In order to compile and use LLVM, you may need to set some environment
variables.

<dl>
  <dt><tt>LLVM_LIB_SEARCH_PATH</tt>=<tt>/path/to/your/bytecode/libs</tt></dt>
  <dd>[Optional] This environment variable helps LLVM linking tools find the
  locations of your bytecode libraries. It is provided only as a
  convenience since you can specify the paths using the -L options of the
  tools and the C/C++ front-end will automatically use the bytecode files
  installed in its
  <tt>lib</tt> directory.</dd>
</dl>

</div>

<!-- ======================================================================= -->
<div class="doc_subsection">
  <a name="unpack">Unpacking the LLVM Archives</a>
</div>

<div class="doc_text">

<p>
If you have the LLVM distribution, you will need to unpack it before you
can begin to compile it.  LLVM is distributed as a set of two files: the LLVM
suite and the LLVM GCC front end compiled for your platform.  There is an
additional test suite that is optional.  Each file is a TAR archive that is
compressed with the gzip program.
</p>

<p>The files are as follows, with <em>x.y</em> marking the version number:
<dl>
  <dt><tt>llvm-x.y.tar.gz</tt></dt>
  <dd>Source release for the LLVM libraries and tools.<br/></dd>

  <dt><tt>llvm-test-x.y.tar.gz</tt></dt>
  <dd>Source release for the LLVM test suite.</dd>

  <dt><tt>cfrontend-x.y.source.tar.gz</tt></dt>
  <dd>Source release of the GCC front end.<br/></dd>

  <dt><tt>cfrontend-x.y.sparc-sun-solaris2.8.tar.gz</tt></dt>
  <dd>Binary release of the GCC front end for Solaris/Sparc.
  <br/></dd>

  <dt><tt>cfrontend-x.y.i686-redhat-linux-gnu.tar.gz</tt></dt>
  <dd>Binary release of the GCC front end for Linux/x86.<br/></dd>

  <dt><tt>cfrontend-x.y.i386-unknown-freebsd5.1.tar.gz</tt></dt>
  <dd>Binary release of the GCC front end for FreeBSD/x86.<br/></dd>

  <dt><tt>cfrontend-x.y.powerpc-apple-darwin7.8.0.tar.gz</tt></dt>
  <dd>Binary release of the GCC front end for MacOS X/PPC.<br/></dd>
</dl>

</div>

<!-- ======================================================================= -->
<div class="doc_subsection">
  <a name="checkout">Checkout LLVM from CVS</a>
</div>

<div class="doc_text">

<p>If you have access to our CVS repository, you can get a fresh copy of
the entire source code.  All you need to do is check it out from CVS as
follows:</p>

<ul>
<li><tt>cd <i>where-you-want-llvm-to-live</i></tt>
  <li><tt>cvs -d :pserver:anon@llvm-cvs.cs.uiuc.edu:/var/cvs/llvm login</tt>
  <li>Hit the return key when prompted for the password.
  <li><tt>cvs -z3 -d :pserver:anon@llvm-cvs.cs.uiuc.edu:/var/cvs/llvm co
      llvm</tt>
</ul>

<p>This will create an '<tt>llvm</tt>' directory in the current
directory and fully populate it with the LLVM source code, Makefiles,
test directories, and local copies of documentation files.</p>

<p>If you want to get a specific release (as opposed to the most recent
revision), you can specify a label.  The following releases have the following
labels:</p>

<ul>
<li>Release 1.6: <b>RELEASE_16</b></li>
<li>Release 1.5: <b>RELEASE_15</b></li>
<li>Release 1.4: <b>RELEASE_14</b></li>
<li>Release 1.3: <b>RELEASE_13</b></li>
<li>Release 1.2: <b>RELEASE_12</b></li>
<li>Release 1.1: <b>RELEASE_11</b></li>
<li>Release 1.0: <b>RELEASE_1</b></li>
</ul>

<p>If you would like to get the LLVM test suite (a separate package as of 1.4),
you get it from the CVS repository:</p>
<pre>
  cd llvm/projects
  cvs -z3 -d :pserver:anon@llvm-cvs.cs.uiuc.edu:/var/cvs/llvm co llvm-test
</pre>
<p>By placing it in the <tt>llvm/projects</tt>, it will be automatically
configured by the LLVM configure script as well as automatically updated when
you run <tt>cvs update</tt>.</p>

<p>If you would like to get the GCC front end source code, you can also get it
from the CVS repository:</p>

<pre>
  cvs -z3 -d :pserver:anon@llvm-cvs.cs.uiuc.edu:/var/cvs/llvm co llvm-gcc
</pre>

<p>Please note that you must follow <a href="CFEBuildInstrs.html">these 
instructions</a> to successfully build the LLVM GCC front-end.</p>

</div>

<!-- ======================================================================= -->
<div class="doc_subsubsection">
  <a name="mirrors">LLVM CVS Mirrors</a>
</div>

<div class="doc_text">

<p>If the main CVS server is overloaded or inaccessible, you can try one of
these user-hosted mirrors:</p>

<ul>
<li><a href="http://llvm.x10sys.com/">Mirror hosted by eXtensible Systems
Inc.</a></li>
</ul>
</div>

<!-- ======================================================================= -->
<div class="doc_subsection">
  <a name="installcf">Install the GCC Front End</a>
</div>

<div class="doc_text">

<p>Before configuring and compiling the LLVM suite, you need to extract the LLVM
GCC front end from the binary distribution.  It is used for building the
bytecode libraries later used by the GCC front end for linking programs, and its
location must be specified when the LLVM suite is configured.</p>

<p>To install the GCC front end, do the following:</p>

<ol>
  <li><tt>cd <i>where-you-want-the-front-end-to-live</i></tt></li>
  <li><tt>gunzip --stdout cfrontend-<i>version</i>.<i>platform</i>.tar.gz | tar -xvf
      -</tt></li>
</ol>

<p>Next, you will need to fix your system header files:</p>

<p><tt>cd cfrontend/<i>platform</i><br>
   ./fixheaders</tt></p>

<p>The binary versions of the GCC front end may not suit all of your needs.  For
example, the binary distribution may include an old version of a system header
file, not "fix" a header file that needs to be fixed for GCC, or it may be
linked with libraries not available on your system.</p>

<p>In cases like these, you may want to try <a
href="CFEBuildInstrs.html">building the GCC front end from source.</a> This is
not for the faint of heart, so be forewarned.</p>

</div>

<!-- ======================================================================= -->
<div class="doc_subsection">
  <a name="config">Local LLVM Configuration</a>
</div>

<div class="doc_text">

<p>Once checked out from the CVS repository, the LLVM suite source code must be
configured via the <tt>configure</tt> script.  This script sets variables in the
various <tt>*.in</tt> files, most notably <tt>llvm/Makefile.config</tt> and 
<tt>llvm/include/Config/config.h</tt>.  It also populates <i>OBJ_ROOT</i> with 
the Makefiles needed to begin building LLVM.</p>

<p>The following environment variables are used by the <tt>configure</tt>
script to configure the build system:</p>

<table>
  <tr><th>Variable</th><th>Purpose</th></tr>
  <tr>
    <td>CC</td>
    <td>Tells <tt>configure</tt> which C compiler to use.  By default,
        <tt>configure</tt> will look for the first GCC C compiler in
        <tt>PATH</tt>.  Use this variable to override
        <tt>configure</tt>'s default behavior.</td>
  </tr>
  <tr>
    <td>CXX</td>
    <td>Tells <tt>configure</tt> which C++ compiler to use.  By default,
       <tt>configure</tt> will look for the first GCC C++ compiler in
       <tt>PATH</tt>.  Use this variable to override
       <tt>configure</tt>'s default behavior.</td>
  </tr>
</table>

<p>The following options can be used to set or enable LLVM specific options:</p>

<dl>
  <dt><i>--with-llvmgccdir</i></dt>
  <dd>Path to the LLVM C/C++ FrontEnd to be used with this LLVM configuration. 
  The value of this option should specify the full pathname of the C/C++ Front
  End to be used. If this option is not provided, the PATH will be searched for
  a program named <i>llvm-gcc</i> and the C/C++ FrontEnd install directory will
  be inferred from the path found. If the option is not given, and no llvm-gcc
  can be found in the path then a warning will be produced by 
  <tt>configure</tt> indicating this situation. LLVM may still be built with 
  the <tt>tools-only</tt> target but attempting to build the runtime libraries
  will fail as these libraries require llvm-gcc and llvm-g++. See 
  <a href="#installcf">Install the GCC Front End</a> for details on installing
  the C/C++ Front End. See
  <a href="CFEBuildInstrs.html">Bootstrapping the LLVM C/C++ Front-End</a>
  for details on building the C/C++ Front End.</dd>
  <dt><i>--with-tclinclude</i></dt>
  <dd>Path to the tcl include directory under which <tt>tclsh</tt> can be
  found. Use this if you have multiple tcl installations on your machine and you
  want to use a specific one (8.x) for LLVM. LLVM only uses tcl for running the
  dejagnu based test suite in <tt>llvm/test</tt>. If you don't specify this
  option, the LLVM configure script will search for the tcl 8.4 and 8.3
  releases.
  <p></p>
  </dd>
  <dt><i>--enable-optimized</i></dt>
  <dd>
    Enables optimized compilation by default (debugging symbols are removed
    and GCC optimization flags are enabled).  The default is to use an
    unoptimized build (also known as a debug build).
    <p></p>
  </dd>
  <dt><i>--enable-jit</i></dt>
  <dd>
    Compile the Just In Time (JIT) compiler functionality.  This is not
    available
    on all platforms.  The default is dependent on platform, so it is best
    to explicitly enable it if you want it.
    <p></p>
  </dd>
  <dt><i>--enable-targets=</i><tt>target-option</tt></dt>
  <dd>Controls which targets will be built and linked into llc. The default 
  value for <tt>target_options</tt> is "all" which builds and links all 
  available targets.  The value "host-only" can be specified to build only a 
  native compiler (no cross-compiler targets available). The "native" target is 
  selected as the target of the build host. You can also specify a comma 
  separated list of target names that you want available in llc. The target 
  names use all lower case. The current set of targets is: <br/>
  <tt>alpha, ia64, powerpc, skeleton, sparc, x86</tt>.
  <p></p></dd>
  <dt><i>--enable-doxygen</i></dt>
  <dd>Look for the doxygen program and enable construction of doxygen based
  documentation from the source code. This is disabled by default because 
  generating the documentation can take a long time and producess 100s of 
  megabytes of output.</dd>
</dl>

<p>To configure LLVM, follow these steps:</p>

<ol>
    <li>Change directory into the object root directory:
    <br>
    <tt>cd <i>OBJ_ROOT</i></tt>
    <p>

    <li>Run the <tt>configure</tt> script located in the LLVM source tree:
    <br>
    <tt><i>SRC_ROOT</i>/configure --prefix=/install/path [other options]</tt>
    <p>
</ol>

</div>

<!-- ======================================================================= -->
<div class="doc_subsection">
  <a name="compile">Compiling the LLVM Suite Source Code</a>
</div>

<div class="doc_text">

<p>Once you have configured LLVM, you can build it.  There are three types of
builds:</p>

<dl>
    <dt>Debug Builds
    <dd>
    These builds are the default when one types <tt>gmake</tt> (unless the
    <tt>--enable-optimized</tt> option was used during configuration).  The
    build system will compile the tools and libraries with debugging
    information.
    <p>

    <dt>Release (Optimized) Builds
    <dd>
    These builds are enabled with the <tt>--enable-optimized</tt> option to
    <tt>configure</tt> or by specifying <tt>ENABLE_OPTIMIZED=1</tt> on the
    <tt>gmake</tt> command line.  For these builds, the build system will
    compile the tools and libraries with GCC optimizations enabled and strip
    debugging information from the libraries and executables it generates. 
    <p>

    <dt>Profile Builds
    <dd>
    These builds are for use with profiling.  They compile profiling
    information into the code for use with programs like <tt>gprof</tt>.
    Profile builds must be started by specifying <tt>ENABLE_PROFILING=1</tt>
    on the <tt>gmake</tt> command line.
</dl>

<p>Once you have LLVM configured, you can build it by entering the
<i>OBJ_ROOT</i> directory and issuing the following command:</p>

<p><tt>gmake</tt></p>

<p>If the build fails, please <a href="#brokengcc">check here</a> to see if you
are using a version of GCC that is known not to compile LLVM.</p>

<p>
If you have multiple processors in your machine, you may wish to use some of
the parallel build options provided by GNU Make.  For example, you could use the
command:</p>

<p><tt>gmake -j2</tt></p>

<p>There are several special targets which are useful when working with the LLVM
source code:</p>

<dl>
  <dt><tt>gmake clean</tt>
  <dd>
  Removes all files generated by the build.  This includes object files,
  generated C/C++ files, libraries, and executables.
  <p>

  <dt><tt>gmake dist-clean</tt>
  <dd>
  Removes everything that <tt>gmake clean</tt> does, but also removes files
  generated by <tt>configure</tt>.  It attempts to return the source tree to the
  original state in which it was shipped.
  <p>

  <dt><tt>gmake install</tt>
  <dd>
  Installs LLVM header files, libraries, tools, and documentation in a
  hierarchy 
  under $PREFIX, specified with <tt>./configure --prefix=[dir]</tt>, which 
  defaults to <tt>/usr/local</tt>.
  <p>
  
  <dt><tt>gmake -C runtime install-bytecode</tt>
  <dd>
  Assuming you built LLVM into $OBJDIR, when this command is run, it will 
  install bytecode libraries into the GCC front end's bytecode library 
  directory.  If you need to update your bytecode libraries,
  this is the target to use once you've built them.
  <p>
</dl>

<p>Please see the <a href="MakefileGuide.html">Makefile Guide</a> for further
details on these <tt>make</tt> targets and descriptions of other targets
available.</p>

<p>It is also possible to override default values from <tt>configure</tt> by
declaring variables on the command line.  The following are some examples:</p>

<dl>
  <dt><tt>gmake ENABLE_OPTIMIZED=1</tt>
  <dd>
  Perform a Release (Optimized) build.
  <p>

  <dt><tt>gmake ENABLE_PROFILING=1</tt>
  <dd>
  Perform a Profiling build.
  <p>

  <dt><tt>gmake VERBOSE=1</tt>
  <dd>
  Print what <tt>gmake</tt> is doing on standard output.
  <p>

  <dt><tt>gmake TOOL_VERBOSE=1</tt></dt>
  <dd>Ask each tool invoked by the makefiles to print out what it is doing on 
  the standard output. This also implies <tt>VERBOSE=1</tt>.
  <p></dd>
</dl>

<p>Every directory in the LLVM object tree includes a <tt>Makefile</tt> to build
it and any subdirectories that it contains.  Entering any directory inside the
LLVM object tree and typing <tt>gmake</tt> should rebuild anything in or below
that directory that is out of date.</p>

</div>

<!-- ======================================================================= -->
<div class="doc_subsection">
  <a name="objfiles">The Location of LLVM Object Files</a>
</div>

<div class="doc_text">

<p>The LLVM build system is capable of sharing a single LLVM source tree among
several LLVM builds.  Hence, it is possible to build LLVM for several different
platforms or configurations using the same source tree.</p>

<p>This is accomplished in the typical autoconf manner:</p>

<ul>
  <li><p>Change directory to where the LLVM object files should live:</p>

      <p><tt>cd <i>OBJ_ROOT</i></tt></p></li>

  <li><p>Run the <tt>configure</tt> script found in the LLVM source
      directory:</p>

      <p><tt><i>SRC_ROOT</i>/configure</tt></p></li>
</ul>

<p>The LLVM build will place files underneath <i>OBJ_ROOT</i> in directories
named after the build type:</p>

<dl>
  <dt>Debug Builds
  <dd>
  <dl>
    <dt>Tools
    <dd><tt><i>OBJ_ROOT</i>/Debug/bin</tt>
    <dt>Libraries
    <dd><tt><i>OBJ_ROOT</i>/Debug/lib</tt>
  </dl>
  <p>

  <dt>Release Builds
  <dd>
  <dl>
    <dt>Tools
    <dd><tt><i>OBJ_ROOT</i>/Release/bin</tt>
    <dt>Libraries
    <dd><tt><i>OBJ_ROOT</i>/Release/lib</tt>
  </dl>
  <p>

  <dt>Profile Builds
  <dd>
  <dl>
    <dt>Tools
    <dd><tt><i>OBJ_ROOT</i>/Profile/bin</tt>
    <dt>Libraries
    <dd><tt><i>OBJ_ROOT</i>/Profile/lib</tt>
  </dl>
</dl>

</div>

<!-- ======================================================================= -->
<div class="doc_subsection">
  <a name="optionalconfig">Optional Configuration Items</a>
</div>

<div class="doc_text">

<p>
If you're running on a Linux system that supports the "<a
  href="http://www.tat.physik.uni-tuebingen.de/~rguenth/linux/binfmt_misc.html">
  binfmt_misc</a>"
module, and you have root access on the system, you can set your system up to
execute LLVM bytecode files directly.  To do this, use commands like this (the
first command may not be required if you are already using the module):</p>

<div class="doc_code">
<pre>
   $ mount -t binfmt_misc none /proc/sys/fs/binfmt_misc
   $ echo ':llvm:M::llvm::/path/to/lli:' &gt; /proc/sys/fs/binfmt_misc/register
   $ chmod u+x hello.bc                (if needed)
   $ ./hello.bc
</pre>
</div>

<p>
This allows you to execute LLVM bytecode files directly.  Thanks to Jack
Cummings for pointing this out!
</p>

</div>


<!-- *********************************************************************** -->
<div class="doc_section">
  <a name="layout"><b>Program Layout</b></a>
</div>
<!-- *********************************************************************** -->

<div class="doc_text">

<p>One useful source of information about the LLVM source base is the LLVM <a
href="http://www.doxygen.org">doxygen</a> documentation available at <tt><a
href="http://llvm.cs.uiuc.edu/doxygen/">http://llvm.cs.uiuc.edu/doxygen/</a></tt>.
The following is a brief introduction to code layout:</p>

</div>

<!-- ======================================================================= -->
<div class="doc_subsection"><a name="cvsdir"><tt>CVS</tt> directories</a></div>
<div class="doc_text">
<p>Every directory checked out of CVS will contain a <tt>CVS</tt> directory; for
the most part these can just be ignored.</p>
</div>

<!-- ======================================================================= -->
<div class="doc_subsection"><a name="examples"><tt>llvm/examples</tt></a></div>
<div class="doc_text">
  <p>This directory contains some simple examples of how to use the LLVM IR and
  JIT.</p>
</div>

<!-- ======================================================================= -->
<div class="doc_subsection"><a name="include"><tt>llvm/include</tt></a></div>
<div class="doc_text">

<p>This directory contains public header files exported from the LLVM
library. The three main subdirectories of this directory are:</p>

<dl>
  <dt><tt><b>llvm/include/llvm</b></tt></dt>
  <dd>This directory contains all of the LLVM specific header files.  This 
  directory also has subdirectories for different portions of LLVM: 
  <tt>Analysis</tt>, <tt>CodeGen</tt>, <tt>Target</tt>, <tt>Transforms</tt>, 
  etc...</dd>

  <dt><tt><b>llvm/include/llvm/Support</b></tt></dt>
  <dd>This directory contains generic support libraries that are provided with 
  LLVM but not necessarily specific to LLVM. For example, some C++ STL utilities 
  and a Command Line option processing library store their header files here.
  </dd>

  <dt><tt><b>llvm/include/llvm/Config</b></tt></dt>
  <dd>This directory contains header files configured by the <tt>configure</tt> 
  script.  They wrap "standard" UNIX and C header files.  Source code can 
  include these header files which automatically take care of the conditional 
  #includes that the <tt>configure</tt> script generates.</dd>
</dl>
</div>

<!-- ======================================================================= -->
<div class="doc_subsection"><a name="lib"><tt>llvm/lib</tt></a></div>
<div class="doc_text">

<p>This directory contains most of the source files of the LLVM system. In LLVM,
almost all code exists in libraries, making it very easy to share code among the
different <a href="#tools">tools</a>.</p>

<dl>
  <dt><tt><b>llvm/lib/VMCore/</b></tt></dt>
  <dd> This directory holds the core LLVM source files that implement core 
  classes like Instruction and BasicBlock.</dd>

  <dt><tt><b>llvm/lib/AsmParser/</b></tt></dt>
  <dd>This directory holds the source code for the LLVM assembly language parser 
  library.</dd>

  <dt><tt><b>llvm/lib/ByteCode/</b></tt></dt>
  <dd>This directory holds code for reading and write LLVM bytecode.</dd>

  <dt><tt><b>llvm/lib/Analysis/</b></tt><dd>This directory contains a variety of
  different program analyses, such as Dominator Information, Call Graphs,
  Induction Variables, Interval Identification, Natural Loop Identification,
  etc.</dd>

  <dt><tt><b>llvm/lib/Transforms/</b></tt></dt>
  <dd> This directory contains the source code for the LLVM to LLVM program 
  transformations, such as Aggressive Dead Code Elimination, Sparse Conditional 
  Constant Propagation, Inlining, Loop Invariant Code Motion, Dead Global 
  Elimination, and many others.</dd>

  <dt><tt><b>llvm/lib/Target/</b></tt></dt>
  <dd> This directory contains files that describe various target architectures
  for code generation.  For example, the <tt>llvm/lib/Target/SparcV9</tt> 
  directory holds the Sparc machine description while
  <tt>llvm/lib/Target/CBackend</tt> implements the LLVM-to-C converter.</dd>
    
  <dt><tt><b>llvm/lib/CodeGen/</b></tt></dt>
  <dd> This directory contains the major parts of the code generator: Instruction 
  Selector, Instruction Scheduling, and Register Allocation.</dd>

  <dt><tt><b>llvm/lib/Debugger/</b></tt></dt>
  <dd> This directory contains the source level debugger library that makes 
  it possible to instrument LLVM programs so that a debugger could identify 
  source code locations at which the program is executing.</dd>

  <dt><tt><b>llvm/lib/ExecutionEngine/</b></tt></dt>
  <dd> This directory contains libraries for executing LLVM bytecode directly 
  at runtime in both interpreted and JIT compiled fashions.</dd>

  <dt><tt><b>llvm/lib/Support/</b></tt></dt>
  <dd> This directory contains the source code that corresponds to the header 
  files located in <tt>llvm/include/Support/</tt>.</dd>

  <dt><tt><b>llvm/lib/System/</b></tt></dt>
  <dd>This directory contains the operating system abstraction layer that
  shields LLVM from platform-specific coding.</dd>
</dl>

</div>

<!-- ======================================================================= -->
<div class="doc_subsection"><a name="projects"><tt>llvm/projects</tt></a></div>
<div class="doc_text">
  <p>This directory contains projects that are not strictly part of LLVM but are
  shipped with LLVM. This is also the directory where you should create your own
  LLVM-based projects. See <tt>llvm/projects/sample</tt> for an example of how
  to set up your own project. See <tt>llvm/projects/Stacker</tt> for a fully 
  functional example of a compiler front end.</p>
</div>

<!-- ======================================================================= -->
<div class="doc_subsection"><a name="runtime"><tt>llvm/runtime</tt></a></div>
<div class="doc_text">

<p>This directory contains libraries which are compiled into LLVM bytecode and
used when linking programs with the GCC front end.  Most of these libraries are
skeleton versions of real libraries; for example, libc is a stripped down
version of glibc.</p>

<p>Unlike the rest of the LLVM suite, this directory needs the LLVM GCC front
end to compile.</p>

</div>

<!-- ======================================================================= -->
<div class="doc_subsection"><a name="test"><tt>llvm/test</tt></a></div>
<div class="doc_text">
  <p>This directory contains feature and regression tests and other basic sanity
  checks on the LLVM infrastructure. These are intended to run quickly and cover
  a lot of territory without being exhaustive.</p>
</div>

<!-- ======================================================================= -->
<div class="doc_subsection"><a name="llvmtest"><tt>llvm-test</tt></a></div>
<div class="doc_text">
  <p>This is not a directory in the normal llvm module; it is a separate CVS
  module that must be checked out (usually to <tt>projects/llvm-test</tt>). This
  module contains a comprehensive correctness, performance, and benchmarking
  test
  suite for LLVM. It is a separate CVS module because not every LLVM user is
  interested in downloading or building such a comprehensive test suite. For
  further details on this test suite, please see the 
  <a href="TestingGuide.html">Testing Guide</a> document.</p>
</div>

<!-- ======================================================================= -->
<div class="doc_subsection"><a name="tools"><tt>llvm/tools</tt></a></div>
<div class="doc_text">

<p>The <b>tools</b> directory contains the executables built out of the
libraries above, which form the main part of the user interface.  You can
always get help for a tool by typing <tt>tool_name --help</tt>.  The
following is a brief introduction to the most important tools.  More detailed
information is in the <a href="CommandGuide/index.html">Command Guide</a>.</p>

<dl>
  <dt><tt><b>analyze</b></tt></dt>
  <dd><tt>analyze</tt> is used to run a specific
  analysis on an input LLVM bytecode file and print out the results.  It is
  primarily useful for debugging analyses, or familiarizing yourself with
  what an analysis does.</dd>

  <dt><tt><b>bugpoint</b></tt></dt>
  <dd><tt>bugpoint</tt> is used to debug
  optimization passes or code generation backends by narrowing down the
  given test case to the minimum number of passes and/or instructions that
  still cause a problem, whether it is a crash or miscompilation. See <a
  href="HowToSubmitABug.html">HowToSubmitABug.html</a> for more information
  on using <tt>bugpoint</tt>.</dd>

  <dt><tt><b>llvmc</b></tt></dt>
  <dd>The LLVM Compiler Driver. This program can
  be configured to utilize both LLVM and non-LLVM compilation tools to enable
  pre-processing, translation, optimization, assembly, and linking of programs
  all from one command line. <tt>llvmc</tt> also takes care of processing the
  dependent libraries found in bytecode. This reduces the need to get the
  traditional <tt>-l&lt;name&gt;</tt> options right on the command line. Please
  note that this tool, while functional, is still experimental and not feature
  complete.</dd>

  <dt><tt><b>llvm-ar</b></tt></dt>
  <dd>The archiver produces an archive containing
  the given LLVM bytecode files, optionally with an index for faster
  lookup.</dd>
  
  <dt><tt><b>llvm-as</b></tt></dt>
  <dd>The assembler transforms the human readable LLVM assembly to LLVM 
  bytecode.</dd>

  <dt><tt><b>llvm-dis</b></tt></dt>
  <dd>The disassembler transforms the LLVM bytecode to human readable 
  LLVM assembly.</dd>

  <dt><tt><b>llvm-ld</b></tt></dt>
  <dd><tt>llvm-ld</tt> is very similar to gccld and provides a general purpose
  and extensible linker for LLVM. This is the linker invoked by <tt>llvmc</tt>.
  It allows optimization modules to be loaded so that language specific
  optimizations can be applied at link time. This tool is considered
  experimental.</dd>

  <dt><tt><b>llvm-link</b></tt></dt>
  <dd><tt>llvm-link</tt>, not surprisingly, links multiple LLVM modules into 
  a single program.</dd>
  
  <dt><tt><b>lli</b></tt></dt>
  <dd><tt>lli</tt> is the LLVM interpreter, which
  can directly execute LLVM bytecode (although very slowly...). In addition
  to a simple interpreter, <tt>lli</tt> also has a tracing mode (entered by
  specifying <tt>-trace</tt> on the command line). Finally, for
  architectures that support it (currently x86, Sparc, and PowerPC), by default,
  <tt>lli</tt> will function as a Just-In-Time compiler (if the
  functionality was compiled in), and will execute the code <i>much</i>
  faster than the interpreter.</dd>

  <dt><tt><b>llc</b></tt></dt>
  <dd> <tt>llc</tt> is the LLVM backend compiler, which
  translates LLVM bytecode to a native code assembly file or to C code (with
  the -march=c option).</dd>

  <dt><tt><b>llvm-gcc</b></tt></dt>
  <dd><tt>llvm-gcc</tt> is a GCC-based C frontend
  that has been retargeted to emit LLVM code as the machine code output.  It
  works just like any other GCC compiler, taking the typical <tt>-c, -S, -E,
  -o</tt> options that are typically used.  The source code for the
  <tt>llvm-gcc</tt> tool is available as a separate CVS module.
  <blockquote>
    <dl>
      <dt><tt><b>gccas</b></tt></dt>
      <dd>This tool is invoked by the <tt>llvm-gcc</tt> frontend as the 
      "assembler" part of the compiler.  This tool actually assembles LLVM 
      assembly to LLVM bytecode, performs a variety of optimizations, and 
      outputs LLVM bytecode.  Thus when you invoke 
      <tt>llvm-gcc -c x.c -o x.o</tt>, you are causing <tt>gccas</tt> to be 
      run, which writes the <tt>x.o</tt> file (which is an LLVM bytecode file 
      that can be disassembled or manipulated just like any other bytecode 
      file).  The command line interface to <tt>gccas</tt> is designed to be 
      as close as possible to the <b>system</b> `<tt>as</tt>' utility so that 
      the gcc frontend itself did not have to be modified to interface to 
      a "weird" assembler.</dd>

      <dt><tt><b>gccld</b></tt></dt>
      <dd><tt>gccld</tt> links together several LLVM bytecode files into one 
      bytecode file and does some optimization.  It is the linker invoked by 
      the GCC frontend when multiple .o files need to be linked together.  
      Like <tt>gccas</tt>, the command line interface of <tt>gccld</tt> is 
      designed to match the system linker, to aid interfacing with the GCC 
      frontend.</dd>
    </dl>
  </blockquote>
  </dd>

  <dt><tt><b>opt</b></tt></dt>
  <dd><tt>opt</tt> reads LLVM bytecode, applies a
  series of LLVM to LLVM transformations (which are specified on the command
  line), and then outputs the resultant bytecode.  The '<tt>opt --help</tt>'
  command is a good way to get a list of the program transformations
  available in LLVM.</dd>
</dl>
</div>

<!-- ======================================================================= -->
<div class="doc_subsection"><a name="utils"><tt>llvm/utils</tt></a></div>
<div class="doc_text">

<p>This directory contains utilities for working with LLVM source code, and some
of the utilities are actually required as part of the build process because they
are code generators for parts of LLVM infrastructure.</p>

<dl>
  <dt><tt><b>Burg/</b></tt> <dd><tt>Burg</tt> is an instruction selector
  generator -- it builds trees on which it then performs pattern-matching to
  select instructions according to the patterns the user has specified. Burg
  is currently used in the Sparc V9 backend.<p>

  <dt><tt><b>codegen-diff</b></tt> <dd><tt>codegen-diff</tt> is a script
  that finds differences between code that LLC generates and code that LLI
  generates. This is a useful tool if you are debugging one of them,
  assuming that the other generates correct output. For the full user
  manual, run <tt>`perldoc codegen-diff'</tt>.<p>

  <dt><tt><b>cvsupdate</b></tt> <dd><tt>cvsupdate</tt> is a script that will
  update your CVS tree, but produce a much cleaner and more organized output
  than simply running <tt>`cvs -z3 up -dP'</tt> will. For example, it will group
  together all the new and updated files and modified files in separate
  sections, so you can see at a glance what has changed. If you are at the
  top of your LLVM CVS tree, running <tt>utils/cvsupdate</tt> is the
  preferred way of updating the tree.<p>

  <dt><tt><b>emacs/</b></tt> <dd>The <tt>emacs</tt> directory contains
  syntax-highlighting files which will work with Emacs and XEmacs editors,
  providing syntax highlighting support for LLVM assembly files and TableGen
  description files. For information on how to use the syntax files, consult
  the <tt>README</tt> file in that directory.<p>

  <dt><tt><b>getsrcs.sh</b></tt> <dd>The <tt>getsrcs.sh</tt> script finds
  and outputs all non-generated source files, which is useful if one wishes
  to do a lot of development across directories and does not want to
  individually find each file. One way to use it is to run, for example:
  <tt>xemacs `utils/getsources.sh`</tt> from the top of your LLVM source
  tree.<p>
  
  <dt><tt><b>llvmgrep</b></tt></dt>
  <dd>This little tool performs an "egrep -H -n" on each source file in LLVM and
  passes to it a regular expression provided on <tt>llvmgrep</tt>'s command
  line. This is a very efficient way of searching the source base for a
  particular regular expression.</dd>

  <dt><tt><b>makellvm</b></tt> <dd>The <tt>makellvm</tt> script compiles all
  files in the current directory and then compiles and links the tool that
  is the first argument. For example, assuming you are in the directory
  <tt>llvm/lib/Target/Sparc</tt>, if <tt>makellvm</tt> is in your path,
  simply running <tt>makellvm llc</tt> will make a build of the current
  directory, switch to directory <tt>llvm/tools/llc</tt> and build it,
  causing a re-linking of LLC.<p>

  <dt><tt><b>NightlyTest.pl</b></tt> and
  <tt><b>NightlyTestTemplate.html</b></tt> <dd>These files are used in a
  cron script to generate nightly status reports of the functionality of
  tools, and the results can be seen by following the appropriate link on
  the <a href="http://llvm.cs.uiuc.edu/">LLVM homepage</a>.<p>

  <dt><tt><b>TableGen/</b></tt> <dd>The <tt>TableGen</tt> directory contains
  the tool used to generate register descriptions, instruction set
  descriptions, and even assemblers from common TableGen description
  files.<p>

  <dt><tt><b>vim/</b></tt> <dd>The <tt>vim</tt> directory contains
  syntax-highlighting files which will work with the VIM editor, providing
  syntax highlighting support for LLVM assembly files and TableGen
  description files. For information on how to use the syntax files, consult
  the <tt>README</tt> file in that directory.<p>

</dl>

</div>

<!-- ======================================================================= -->
<div class="doc_subsection"><a name="win32"><tt>llvm/win32</tt></a></div>
<div class="doc_text">
  <p>This directory contains build scripts and project files for use with 
  Visual C++. This allows developers on Windows to build LLVM without the need
  for Cygwin. The contents of this directory should be considered experimental
  at this time.
  </p>
</div>
<!-- *********************************************************************** -->
<div class="doc_section">
  <a name="tutorial">An Example Using the LLVM Tool Chain</a>
</div>
<!-- *********************************************************************** -->

<div class="doc_text">

<ol>
  <li>First, create a simple C file, name it 'hello.c':
       <pre>
   #include &lt;stdio.h&gt;
   int main() {
     printf("hello world\n");
     return 0;
   }
       </pre></li>

  <li><p>Next, compile the C file into a LLVM bytecode file:</p>
      <p><tt>% llvm-gcc hello.c -o hello</tt></p>

      <p>Note that you should have already built the tools and they have to be
      in your path, at least <tt>gccas</tt> and <tt>gccld</tt>.</p>

      <p>This will create two result files: <tt>hello</tt> and
      <tt>hello.bc</tt>. The <tt>hello.bc</tt> is the LLVM bytecode that
      corresponds the the compiled program and the library facilities that it
      required.  <tt>hello</tt> is a simple shell script that runs the bytecode
      file with <tt>lli</tt>, making the result directly executable.  Note that
      all LLVM optimizations are enabled by default, so there is no need for a 
      "-O3" switch.</p></li>

  <li><p>Run the program. To make sure the program ran, execute one of the
      following commands:</p>
      
      <p><tt>% ./hello</tt></p>
 
      <p>or</p>

      <p><tt>% lli hello.bc</tt></p></li>

  <li><p>Use the <tt>llvm-dis</tt> utility to take a look at the LLVM assembly
      code:</p>

      <p><tt>% llvm-dis &lt; hello.bc | less</tt><p></li>

  <li><p>Compile the program to native assembly using the LLC code
      generator:</p>

      <p><tt>% llc hello.bc -o hello.s</tt></p>

  <li><p>Assemble the native assembly language file into a program:</p>

      <p><b>Solaris:</b><tt>% /opt/SUNWspro/bin/cc -xarch=v9 hello.s -o hello.native</tt></p>
      <p><b>Others:</b><tt>% gcc hello.s -o hello.native</tt></p>

  <li><p>Execute the native code program:</p>

      <p><tt>% ./hello.native</tt></p></li>

</ol>

</div>

<!-- *********************************************************************** -->
<div class="doc_section">
  <a name="problems">Common Problems</a>
</div>
<!-- *********************************************************************** -->

<div class="doc_text">

<p>If you are having problems building or using LLVM, or if you have any other
general questions about LLVM, please consult the <a href="FAQ.html">Frequently
Asked Questions</a> page.</p>

</div>

<!-- *********************************************************************** -->
<div class="doc_section">
  <a name="links">Links</a>
</div>
<!-- *********************************************************************** -->

<div class="doc_text">

<p>This document is just an <b>introduction</b> to how to use LLVM to do
some simple things... there are many more interesting and complicated things
that you can do that aren't documented here (but we'll gladly accept a patch
if you want to write something up!).  For more information about LLVM, check
out:</p>

<ul>
  <li><a href="http://llvm.cs.uiuc.edu/">LLVM homepage</a></li>
  <li><a href="http://llvm.cs.uiuc.edu/doxygen/">LLVM doxygen tree</a></li>
  <li><a href="http://llvm.cs.uiuc.edu/docs/Projects.html">Starting a Project
  that Uses LLVM</a></li>
</ul>

</div>

<!-- *********************************************************************** -->

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