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<h1 class="title">Tutorial - Using LLVMC</h1>

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<div class="contents topic" id="contents">
<p class="topic-title first">Contents</p>
<ul class="simple">
<li><a class="reference internal" href="#introduction" id="id1">Introduction</a></li>
<li><a class="reference internal" href="#compiling-with-llvmc" id="id2">Compiling with LLVMC</a></li>
<li><a class="reference internal" href="#using-llvmc-to-generate-toolchain-drivers" id="id3">Using LLVMC to generate toolchain drivers</a></li>
<div class="doc_author">
<p>Written by <a href="mailto:foldr@codedgers.com">Mikhail Glushenkov</a></p>
</div><div class="section" id="introduction">
<h1><a class="toc-backref" href="#id1">Introduction</a></h1>
<p>LLVMC is a generic compiler driver, which plays the same role for LLVM
as the <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">gcc</span></tt> program does for GCC - the difference being that LLVMC
is designed to be more adaptable and easier to customize. Most of
LLVMC functionality is implemented via plugins, which can be loaded
dynamically or compiled in. This tutorial describes the basic usage
and configuration of LLVMC.</p>
<div class="section" id="compiling-with-llvmc">
<h1><a class="toc-backref" href="#id2">Compiling with LLVMC</a></h1>
<p>In general, LLVMC tries to be command-line compatible with <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">gcc</span></tt> as
much as possible, so most of the familiar options work:</p>
<pre class="literal-block">
$ llvmc -O3 -Wall hello.cpp
$ ./a.out
<p>This will invoke <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">llvm-g++</span></tt> under the hood (you can see which
commands are executed by using the <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">-v</span></tt> option). For further help on
command-line LLVMC usage, refer to the <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">llvmc</span> <span class="pre">--help</span></tt> output.</p>
<div class="section" id="using-llvmc-to-generate-toolchain-drivers">
<h1><a class="toc-backref" href="#id3">Using LLVMC to generate toolchain drivers</a></h1>
<p>LLVMC plugins are written mostly using <a class="reference external" href="http://llvm.org/docs/TableGenFundamentals.html">TableGen</a>, so you need to
be familiar with it to get anything done.</p>
<p>Start by compiling <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">example/Simple</span></tt>, which is a primitive wrapper for
<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">gcc</span></tt>:</p>
<pre class="literal-block">
$ cd $LLVM_DIR/tools/llvmc
$ cp -r example/Simple plugins/Simple

  # NB: A less verbose way to compile standalone LLVMC-based drivers is
  # described in the reference manual.

$ cat &gt; hello.c
$ mygcc hello.c
$ ./hello.out
<p>Here we link our plugin with the LLVMC core statically to form an executable
file called <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">mygcc</span></tt>. It is also possible to build our plugin as a dynamic
library to be loaded by the <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">llvmc</span></tt> executable (or any other LLVMC-based
standalone driver); this is described in the reference manual.</p>
<p>Contents of the file <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">Simple.td</span></tt> look like this:</p>
<pre class="literal-block">
// Include common definitions
include &quot;llvm/CompilerDriver/Common.td&quot;

// Tool descriptions
def gcc : Tool&lt;
[(in_language &quot;c&quot;),
 (out_language &quot;executable&quot;),
 (output_suffix &quot;out&quot;),
 (cmd_line &quot;gcc $INFILE -o $OUTFILE&quot;),

// Language map
def LanguageMap : LanguageMap&lt;[LangToSuffixes&lt;&quot;c&quot;, [&quot;c&quot;]&gt;]&gt;;

// Compilation graph
def CompilationGraph : CompilationGraph&lt;[Edge&lt;&quot;root&quot;, &quot;gcc&quot;&gt;]&gt;;
<p>As you can see, this file consists of three parts: tool descriptions,
language map, and the compilation graph definition.</p>
<p>At the heart of LLVMC is the idea of a compilation graph: vertices in
this graph are tools, and edges represent a transformation path
between two tools (for example, assembly source produced by the
compiler can be transformed into executable code by an assembler). The
compilation graph is basically a list of edges; a special node named
<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">root</span></tt> is used to mark graph entry points.</p>
<p>Tool descriptions are represented as property lists: most properties
in the example above should be self-explanatory; the <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">sink</span></tt> property
means that all options lacking an explicit description should be
forwarded to this tool.</p>
<p>The <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">LanguageMap</span></tt> associates a language name with a list of suffixes
and is used for deciding which toolchain corresponds to a given input
<p>To learn more about LLVMC customization, refer to the reference
manual and plugin source code in the <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">plugins</span></tt> directory.</p>
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<a href="mailto:foldr@codedgers.com">Mikhail Glushenkov</a><br />
<a href="http://llvm.org">LLVM Compiler Infrastructure</a><br />

Last modified: $Date: 2008-12-11 11:34:48 -0600 (Thu, 11 Dec 2008) $