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.. _projects:

========================
Creating an LLVM Project
========================

.. contents::
   :local:

Overview
========

The LLVM build system is designed to facilitate the building of third party
projects that use LLVM header files, libraries, and tools.  In order to use
these facilities, a ``Makefile`` from a project must do the following things:

* Set ``make`` variables. There are several variables that a ``Makefile`` needs
  to set to use the LLVM build system:

  * ``PROJECT_NAME`` - The name by which your project is known.
  * ``LLVM_SRC_ROOT`` - The root of the LLVM source tree.
  * ``LLVM_OBJ_ROOT`` - The root of the LLVM object tree.
  * ``PROJ_SRC_ROOT`` - The root of the project's source tree.
  * ``PROJ_OBJ_ROOT`` - The root of the project's object tree.
  * ``PROJ_INSTALL_ROOT`` - The root installation directory.
  * ``LEVEL`` - The relative path from the current directory to the
    project's root ``($PROJ_OBJ_ROOT)``.

* Include ``Makefile.config`` from ``$(LLVM_OBJ_ROOT)``.

* Include ``Makefile.rules`` from ``$(LLVM_SRC_ROOT)``.

There are two ways that you can set all of these variables:

* You can write your own ``Makefiles`` which hard-code these values.

* You can use the pre-made LLVM sample project. This sample project includes
  ``Makefiles``, a configure script that can be used to configure the location
  of LLVM, and the ability to support multiple object directories from a single
  source directory.

This document assumes that you will base your project on the LLVM sample project
found in ``llvm/projects/sample``. If you want to devise your own build system,
studying the sample project and LLVM ``Makefiles`` will probably provide enough
information on how to write your own ``Makefiles``.

Create a Project from the Sample Project
========================================

Follow these simple steps to start your project:

1. Copy the ``llvm/projects/sample`` directory to any place of your choosing.
   You can place it anywhere you like. Rename the directory to match the name
   of your project.

2. If you downloaded LLVM using Subversion, remove all the directories named
   ``.svn`` (and all the files therein) from your project's new source tree.
   This will keep Subversion from thinking that your project is inside
   ``llvm/trunk/projects/sample``.

3. Add your source code and Makefiles to your source tree.

4. If you want your project to be configured with the ``configure`` script then
   you need to edit ``autoconf/configure.ac`` as follows:

   * **AC_INIT** - Place the name of your project, its version number and a
     contact email address for your project as the arguments to this macro
 
   * **AC_CONFIG_AUX_DIR** - If your project isn't in the ``llvm/projects``
     directory then you might need to adjust this so that it specifies a
     relative path to the ``llvm/autoconf`` directory.

   * **LLVM_CONFIG_PROJECT** - Just leave this alone.

   * **AC_CONFIG_SRCDIR** - Specify a path to a file name that identifies your
     project; or just leave it at ``Makefile.common.in``.

   * **AC_CONFIG_FILES** - Do not change.

   * **AC_CONFIG_MAKEFILE** - Use one of these macros for each Makefile that
     your project uses. This macro arranges for your makefiles to be copied from
     the source directory, unmodified, to the build directory.

5. After updating ``autoconf/configure.ac``, regenerate the configure script
   with these commands. (You must be using ``Autoconf`` version 2.59 or later
   and your ``aclocal`` version should be 1.9 or later.)

       .. code-block:: bash

         % cd autoconf
         % ./AutoRegen.sh

6. Run ``configure`` in the directory in which you want to place object code.
   Use the following options to tell your project where it can find LLVM:

   ``--with-llvmsrc=<directory>``
       Tell your project where the LLVM source tree is located.

   ``--with-llvmobj=<directory>``
       Tell your project where the LLVM object tree is located.

   ``--prefix=<directory>``
       Tell your project where it should get installed.

That's it!  Now all you have to do is type ``gmake`` (or ``make`` if you're on a
GNU/Linux system) in the root of your object directory, and your project should
build.

Source Tree Layout
==================

In order to use the LLVM build system, you will want to organize your source
code so that it can benefit from the build system's features.  Mainly, you want
your source tree layout to look similar to the LLVM source tree layout.  The
best way to do this is to just copy the project tree from
``llvm/projects/sample`` and modify it to meet your needs, but you can certainly
add to it if you want.

Underneath your top level directory, you should have the following directories:

**lib**

    This subdirectory should contain all of your library source code.  For each
    library that you build, you will have one directory in **lib** that will
    contain that library's source code.

    Libraries can be object files, archives, or dynamic libraries.  The **lib**
    directory is just a convenient place for libraries as it places them all in
    a directory from which they can be linked later.

**include**

    This subdirectory should contain any header files that are global to your
    project. By global, we mean that they are used by more than one library or
    executable of your project.

    By placing your header files in **include**, they will be found
    automatically by the LLVM build system.  For example, if you have a file
    **include/jazz/note.h**, then your source files can include it simply with
    **#include "jazz/note.h"**.

**tools**

    This subdirectory should contain all of your source code for executables.
    For each program that you build, you will have one directory in **tools**
    that will contain that program's source code.

**test**

    This subdirectory should contain tests that verify that your code works
    correctly.  Automated tests are especially useful.

    Currently, the LLVM build system provides basic support for tests. The LLVM
    system provides the following:

* LLVM provides a ``tcl`` procedure that is used by ``Dejagnu`` to run tests.
  It can be found in ``llvm/lib/llvm-dg.exp``.  This test procedure uses ``RUN``
  lines in the actual test case to determine how to run the test.  See the
  `TestingGuide <TestingGuide.html>`_ for more details. You can easily write
  Makefile support similar to the Makefiles in ``llvm/test`` to use ``Dejagnu``
  to run your project's tests.

* LLVM contains an optional package called ``llvm-test``, which provides
  benchmarks and programs that are known to compile with the Clang front
  end. You can use these programs to test your code, gather statistical
  information, and compare it to the current LLVM performance statistics.
  
  Currently, there is no way to hook your tests directly into the ``llvm/test``
  testing harness. You will simply need to find a way to use the source
  provided within that directory on your own.

Typically, you will want to build your **lib** directory first followed by your
**tools** directory.

Writing LLVM Style Makefiles
============================

The LLVM build system provides a convenient way to build libraries and
executables.  Most of your project Makefiles will only need to define a few
variables.  Below is a list of the variables one can set and what they can
do:

Required Variables
------------------

``LEVEL``

    This variable is the relative path from this ``Makefile`` to the top
    directory of your project's source code.  For example, if your source code
    is in ``/tmp/src``, then the ``Makefile`` in ``/tmp/src/jump/high``
    would set ``LEVEL`` to ``"../.."``.

Variables for Building Subdirectories
-------------------------------------

``DIRS``

    This is a space separated list of subdirectories that should be built.  They
    will be built, one at a time, in the order specified.

``PARALLEL_DIRS``

    This is a list of directories that can be built in parallel. These will be
    built after the directories in DIRS have been built.

``OPTIONAL_DIRS``

    This is a list of directories that can be built if they exist, but will not
    cause an error if they do not exist.  They are built serially in the order
    in which they are listed.

Variables for Building Libraries
--------------------------------

``LIBRARYNAME``

    This variable contains the base name of the library that will be built.  For
    example, to build a library named ``libsample.a``, ``LIBRARYNAME`` should
    be set to ``sample``.

``BUILD_ARCHIVE``

    By default, a library is a ``.o`` file that is linked directly into a
    program.  To build an archive (also known as a static library), set the
    ``BUILD_ARCHIVE`` variable.

``SHARED_LIBRARY``

    If ``SHARED_LIBRARY`` is defined in your Makefile, a shared (or dynamic)
    library will be built.

Variables for Building Programs
-------------------------------

``TOOLNAME``

    This variable contains the name of the program that will be built.  For
    example, to build an executable named ``sample``, ``TOOLNAME`` should be set
    to ``sample``.

``USEDLIBS``

    This variable holds a space separated list of libraries that should be
    linked into the program.  These libraries must be libraries that come from
    your **lib** directory.  The libraries must be specified without their
    ``lib`` prefix.  For example, to link ``libsample.a``, you would set
    ``USEDLIBS`` to ``sample.a``.

    Note that this works only for statically linked libraries.

``LLVMLIBS``

    This variable holds a space separated list of libraries that should be
    linked into the program.  These libraries must be LLVM libraries.  The
    libraries must be specified without their ``lib`` prefix.  For example, to
    link with a driver that performs an IR transformation you might set
    ``LLVMLIBS`` to this minimal set of libraries ``LLVMSupport.a LLVMCore.a
    LLVMBitReader.a LLVMAsmParser.a LLVMAnalysis.a LLVMTransformUtils.a
    LLVMScalarOpts.a LLVMTarget.a``.

    Note that this works only for statically linked libraries. LLVM is split
    into a large number of static libraries, and the list of libraries you
    require may be much longer than the list above. To see a full list of
    libraries use: ``llvm-config --libs all``.  Using ``LINK_COMPONENTS`` as
    described below, obviates the need to set ``LLVMLIBS``.

``LINK_COMPONENTS``

    This variable holds a space separated list of components that the LLVM
    ``Makefiles`` pass to the ``llvm-config`` tool to generate a link line for
    the program. For example, to link with all LLVM libraries use
    ``LINK_COMPONENTS = all``.

``LIBS``

    To link dynamic libraries, add ``-l<library base name>`` to the ``LIBS``
    variable.  The LLVM build system will look in the same places for dynamic
    libraries as it does for static libraries.

    For example, to link ``libsample.so``, you would have the following line in
    your ``Makefile``:

        .. code-block:: makefile

          LIBS += -lsample

Note that ``LIBS`` must occur in the Makefile after the inclusion of
``Makefile.common``.

Miscellaneous Variables
-----------------------

``CFLAGS`` & ``CPPFLAGS``

    This variable can be used to add options to the C and C++ compiler,
    respectively.  It is typically used to add options that tell the compiler
    the location of additional directories to search for header files.

    It is highly suggested that you append to ``CFLAGS`` and ``CPPFLAGS`` as
    opposed to overwriting them.  The master ``Makefiles`` may already have
    useful options in them that you may not want to overwrite.

Placement of Object Code
========================

The final location of built libraries and executables will depend upon whether
you do a ``Debug``, ``Release``, or ``Profile`` build.

Libraries

    All libraries (static and dynamic) will be stored in
    ``PROJ_OBJ_ROOT/<type>/lib``, where *type* is ``Debug``, ``Release``, or
    ``Profile`` for a debug, optimized, or profiled build, respectively.

Executables

    All executables will be stored in ``PROJ_OBJ_ROOT/<type>/bin``, where *type*
    is ``Debug``, ``Release``, or ``Profile`` for a debug, optimized, or
    profiled build, respectively.

Further Help
============

If you have any questions or need any help creating an LLVM project, the LLVM
team would be more than happy to help.  You can always post your questions to
the `LLVM Developers Mailing List
<http://lists.cs.uiuc.edu/pipermail/llvmdev/>`_.