llvm.org GIT mirror llvm / release_21 docs / WritingAnLLVMBackend.html
release_21

Tree @release_21 (Download .tar.gz)

WritingAnLLVMBackend.html @release_21

8eb6719
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
7a2fd89
8eb6719
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
8e9f2ce
 
 
8eb6719
 
 
 
 
c3b0540
8eb6719
 
 
 
 
 
c3b0540
8eb6719
 
 
 
 
 
c3b0540
8eb6719
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
93d416f
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
8eb6719
c3b0540
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
8eb6719
c3b0540
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
8eb6719
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
7a2fd89
8eb6719
 
 
7a2fd89
8eb6719
 
 
7a2fd89
8eb6719
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
a3bfc6f
8eb6719
a3bfc6f
 
 
 
 
8eb6719
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
05fe4b0
8eb6719
 
 
 
 
 
<!DOCTYPE HTML PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD HTML 4.01//EN"
                      "http://www.w3.org/TR/html4/strict.dtd">
<html>
<head>
  <title>Writing an LLVM backend</title>
  <link rel="stylesheet" href="llvm.css" type="text/css">
</head>

<body>

<div class="doc_title">
  Writing an LLVM backend
</div>

<ol>
  <li><a href="#intro">Introduction</a>
  <li><a href="#backends">Writing a backend</a>
  <ol>
    <li><a href="#machine">Machine backends</a>
    <ol>
      <li><a href="#machineTOC">Outline</a></li>
      <li><a href="#machineDetails">Implementation details</a></li>
    </ol></li>  
    <li><a href="#lang">Language backends</a></li>
  </ol></li>
  <li><a href="#related">Related reading material</a>
</ol>

<div class="doc_author">    
  <p>Written by <a href="http://misha.brukman.net">Misha Brukman</a></p>
</div>

<!-- *********************************************************************** -->
<div class="doc_section">
  <a name="intro">Introduction</a>
</div>
<!-- *********************************************************************** -->

<div class="doc_text">

<p>This document describes techniques for writing backends for LLVM which
convert the LLVM representation to machine assembly code or other languages.</p>

</div>

<!-- *********************************************************************** -->
<div class="doc_section">
  <a name="backends">Writing a backend</a>
</div>
<!-- *********************************************************************** -->

<!-- ======================================================================= -->
<div class="doc_subsection">
  <a name="machine">Machine backends</a>
</div>
    
<!-- _______________________________________________________________________ -->
<div class="doc_subsubsection">
  <a name="machineTOC">Outline</a>
</div>

<div class="doc_text">

<p>In general, you want to follow the format of SPARC, X86 or PowerPC (in
<tt>lib/Target</tt>).  SPARC is the simplest backend, and is RISC, so if
you're working on a RISC target, it is a good one to start with.</p>

<p>To create a static compiler (one that emits text assembly), you need to
implement the following:</p>

<ul>
<li>Describe the register set.
  <ul>
  <li>Create a <a href="TableGenFundamentals.html">TableGen</a> description of
      the register set and register classes</li>
  <li>Implement a subclass of <tt><a
      href="CodeGenerator.html#mregisterinfo">MRegisterInfo</a></tt></li>
  </ul></li>
<li>Describe the instruction set.
  <ul>
  <li>Create a <a href="TableGenFundamentals.html">TableGen</a> description of
      the instruction set</li>
  <li>Implement a subclass of <tt><a
      href="CodeGenerator.html#targetinstrinfo">TargetInstrInfo</a></tt></li>
  </ul></li>
<li>Describe the target machine.
  <ul>
  <li>Create a <a href="TableGenFundamentals.html">TableGen</a> description of
      the target that describes the pointer size and references the instruction
      set</li>
  <li>Implement a subclass of <tt><a
      href="CodeGenerator.html#targetmachine">TargetMachine</a></tt>, which
      configures <tt><a href="CodeGenerator.html#targetdata">TargetData</a></tt>
      correctly</li>
  <li>Register your new target using the <tt>RegisterTarget</tt>
  template:<br><br>
<div class="doc_code"><pre>
RegisterTarget&lt;<em>MyTargetMachine</em>&gt; M("short_name", "  Target name");
</pre></div>
      <br>Here, <em>MyTargetMachine</em> is the name of your implemented
      subclass of <tt><a
      href="CodeGenerator.html#targetmachine">TargetMachine</a></tt>,
      <em>short_name</em> is the option that will be active following
      <tt>-march=</tt> to select a target in llc and lli, and the last string
      is the description of your target to appear in <tt>-help</tt>
      listing.</li>
  </ul></li>
<li>Implement the assembly printer for the architecture.
  <ul>
  <li>Define all of the assembly strings for your target, adding them to the
      instructions in your *InstrInfo.td file.</li>
  <li>Implement the <tt>llvm::AsmPrinter</tt> interface.</li>
  </ul>
</li>
<li>Implement an instruction selector for the architecture.
  <ul>
  <li>The recommended method is the <a href="CodeGenerator.html#instselect">
      pattern-matching DAG-to-DAG instruction selector</a> (for example, see
      the PowerPC backend in PPCISelDAGtoDAG.cpp).  Parts of instruction
      selector creation can be performed by adding patterns to the instructions
      in your <tt>.td</tt> file.</li>
  </ul>
</li>
<li>Optionally, add subtarget support.
<ul>
  <li>If your target has multiple subtargets (e.g. variants with different
      capabilities), implement the <tt>llvm::TargetSubtarget</tt> interface
      for your architecture.  This allows you to add <tt>-mcpu=</tt> and 
      <tt>-mattr=</tt> options.</li>
</ul>
<li>Optionally, add JIT support.
  <ul>
  <li>Create a subclass of <tt><a
      href="CodeGenerator.html#targetjitinfo">TargetJITInfo</a></tt></li>
  <li>Create a machine code emitter that will be used to emit binary code
      directly into memory, given <tt>MachineInstr</tt>s</li>
  </ul>
</ul>
</div>

<!-- _______________________________________________________________________ -->
<div class="doc_subsubsection">
  <a name="machineDetails">Implementation details</a>
</div>

<div class="doc_text">

<ul>

<li><p><b>TableGen register info description</b> - describe a class which
will store the register's number in the binary encoding of the instruction
(e.g., for JIT purposes).</p>

<p>You also need to define register classes to contain these registers, such as
the integer register class and floating-point register class, so that you can
allocate virtual registers to instructions from these sets, and let the
target-independent register allocator automatically choose the actual
architected registers.</p>

<div class="doc_code">
<pre>
// class Register is defined in Target.td
<b>class</b> <em>Target</em>Reg&lt;string name&gt; : Register&lt;name&gt; {
  <b>let</b> Namespace = "<em>Target</em>";
}

<b>class</b> IntReg&lt;<b>bits</b>&lt;5&gt; num, string name&gt; : <em>Target</em>Reg&lt;name&gt; {
  <b>field</b> <b>bits</b>&lt;5&gt; Num = num;
}

<b>def</b> R0 : IntReg&lt;0, "%R0"&gt;;
...

// class RegisterClass is defined in Target.td
<b>def</b> IReg : RegisterClass&lt;i64, 64, [R0, ... ]&gt;;
</pre>
</div>
</li>

<li><p><b>TableGen instruction info description</b> - break up instructions into
classes, usually that's already done by the manufacturer (see instruction
manual).  Define a class for each instruction category.  Define each opcode as a
subclass of the category, with appropriate parameters such as the fixed binary
encoding of opcodes and extended opcodes, and map the register bits to the bits
of the instruction which they are encoded in (for the JIT).  Also specify how
the instruction should be printed so it can use the automatic assembly printer,
e.g.:</p>

<div class="doc_code">
<pre>
// class Instruction is defined in Target.td
<b>class</b> Form&lt;<b>bits</b>&lt;6&gt; opcode, <b>dag</b> OL, <b>string</b> asmstr&gt; : Instruction {
  <b>field</b> <b>bits</b>&lt;42&gt; Inst;

  <b>let</b> Namespace = "<em>Target</em>";
  <b>let</b> Inst{0-6} = opcode;
  <b>let</b> OperandList = OL;
  <b>let</b> AsmString = asmstr;
}

<b>def</b> ADD : Form&lt;42, (ops IReg:$rD, IReg:$rA, IReg:$rB), "add $rD, $rA, $rB"&gt;;
</pre>
</div>
</li>

</ul>

</div>

<!-- ======================================================================= -->
<div class="doc_subsection">
  <a name="lang">Language backends</a>
</div>

<div class="doc_text">

<p>For now, just take a look at <tt>lib/Target/CBackend</tt> for an example of
how the C backend is written.</p>

</div>

<!-- *********************************************************************** -->
<div class="doc_section">
  <a name="related">Related reading material</a>
</div>
<!-- *********************************************************************** -->

<div class="doc_text">

<ul>
<li><a href="CodeGenerator.html">Code generator</a> -
    describes some of the classes in code generation at a high level, but
    it is not (yet) complete</li>
<li><a href="TableGenFundamentals.html">TableGen fundamentals</a> -
    describes how to use TableGen to describe your target information
    succinctly</li>
<li><a href="HowToSubmitABug.html#codegen">Debugging code generation with
    bugpoint</a> - shows bugpoint usage scenarios to simplify backend
    development</li>
</ul>

</div>

<!-- *********************************************************************** -->

<hr>
<address>
  <a href="http://jigsaw.w3.org/css-validator/check/referer"><img
  src="http://jigsaw.w3.org/css-validator/images/vcss" alt="Valid CSS!"></a>
  <a href="http://validator.w3.org/check/referer"><img
  src="http://www.w3.org/Icons/valid-html401" alt="Valid HTML 4.01!" /></a>

  <a href="http://misha.brukman.net">Misha Brukman</a><br>
  <a href="http://llvm.org">The LLVM Compiler Infrastructure</a>
  <br>
  Last modified: $Date$
</address>

</body>
</html>